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During the Civil War Florida's many small harbors and inlets were used for blockade running, while the Union navy employed Key West as the base of its Florida blockade. The British Bahamas and Spanish Cuba were within easy sailing distance from the Florida coast. Many small blockade-runner schooners and sloops were lost in Florida waters because of storms and Union blockaders. In a seven-month period in the St. Johns River, Confederate torpedoes and artillery sank the Union vessels Alice Price, USS Columbine, General Hunter, Harriet A. Weed, and Maple Leaf. A number of Union vessels were lost on Florida's reefs and in storms.

A. B. Noyes. Union. Barge. Was burned by Confederates on October 16, 1863, in Tampa Bay near Fort Brooke. (OR, 28, Pt. 1:735.)

Aid. Confederate. Ship, 100 tons. Was captured inside the Mobile Bar on June 5, 1861, by a three-boat expedition from the USS Niagara. Was sunk on August 23, 1861, on the east end of Santa Rosa Island, to block the entrance

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to Confederate-held Pensacola harbor. (ORN, 16:644; DANFS, 5:439.)

Alice Price (Alice C. Price). Union army. Side-wheel steam transport, 320 or 238 tons. Built in 1853 at New York City. Was sunk on September 13, 1864, by a Confederate torpedo in the St. Johns River near Mandarin Point. (OR, 35:2:225; MSV, 6.)

Alicia. Confederate. Schooner. Was captured and destroyed by the USS Sagamore on December 5, 1862, in Jupiter Inlet. (ORN, 17:334.)

Alvarado. Union. Bark. Cargo of 458 or 454 bales of wool, 58 goatskins, 26 bales of bucha leaves, 290 bales of sheepskins, 20 bales of buckskins, 231 hides, as well as 70 tons of iron, old copper, and tin valued at $70,000. Out of Boston. En route from Cape Town, South Africa, to Boston. Was captured by the Confederate privateer Jefferson Davis at latitude 25° 4' north, longitude 50° west. Ran aground on the southeast side of a shoal a mile and a half from the Amelia Island Lighthouse, about one mile from shore. A

Confederate artillery company from Fort Clinch arrived on the beach with two 6-pounders as boats from USS Jamestown burned the Alvarado to the water's edge on August 5, 1861. (OR, 1:347-48; ORN, 6:56-58; 9:539; CWC, 6-256.)

USS Amanda. Union. Sailing bark, 368 tons. Length 117 feet 6 inches, beam 27 feet 9 inches, depth 12 feet 6 inches. Complement of seventy-one, with six 32-pounder smoothbores, one 20-pounder Parrott, and one 12-pound howitzer. Built in 1858 at New York City. Ran ashore after hitting Dog Island during a gale on May 29, 1863, at East Pass, St. George's Sound, about 200-300 yards from shore and 1,200 yards from Dog Island. The USS Hendrick Hudson was nearby but offered little assistance. Was burned by its crew to prevent its capture. Was examined on June 1, 1863, about 150 yards from shore in 18 inches of water, broadside to Topsail Bluff. The USS Somerset and USS Hendrick Hudson raised six 32-pounders, shot, copper, and chains from the hulk. (ORN, 17:451-57; 469; ser. 2, 1:33; WCWN, 140; Turner, Navy Grey, 112.)

Ancilla. Confederate. Schooner, 81 tons. Was destroyed at Cedar Keys on January 16, 1862, by the USS Hatteras. (ORN, 17:834.)

AndrewManderson. Union. Coal bark. Wrecked by a gale on May 29, 1863, at Sand Island. (ORN, 17:49-50; SCH, 336-37.)

Ann. Confederate. Sloop, 3.5 tons. Crew of four. Cargo of salt, coffee, and other goods. Was destroyed by the USS Gem of the Sea on December 30, 1862, at Jupiter Inlet. (ORN, 17:453, 456.)

USS Anna (Annie) (La Criolla). Union. Schooner, 27 tons. Length 46 feet 2 inches, beam 14.75 feet, depth 4.5 feet, laden draft 5 feet laden. Carried one 12-pounder rifled pivot gun. Built in 1857. Was captured as the blockade-runner La Criolla by the USS Fort Henry on February 26, 1863, in the Suwannee River. Was refitted as the USS Anna, a tender to the Union ordnance ship Dale. The USS Anna left Key West and was sunk in 15 fathoms of water by an explosion 10 miles northeast by north of Cape Romain in mid-January 1865. On February 5, 1865, the bow was raised out of the water by the USS Hendrick Hudson, and all of the aft was gone, except for the aft cabin. (ORN, 17:340-41; SCH, 376-77.)

Anna Eliza. British. Sloop. Crew of seven. Cargo of 10,000 gallons of turpentine spirits. Out of Nassau, Bahamas. En route from the Santee River, S.C., for Nassau. Was dismasted and waterlogged when found on May 14, 1864, by the Union mortar schooner USS Sea Foam, at latitude 34° 35' north, longitude 74° 55' west. (ORN, 17:800-801, 807-8; ser. 2, 1:35; WCWN, 144.)

Anna Smith. Confederate. Schooner, 198 tons. Cargo of cotton, lumber, and other goods. Was destroyed on June 16, 1862, at Cedar Keys by the USS Hatteras. (ORN, 17:704-5.)

Annie. Confederate. Sloop. Cargo of cotton. Was captured on April 11, 1863, in the Crystal River by the USS Sea Bird, a tender to the USS Hibiscus. Was scuttled as unfit to sail to Key West. (ORN, 17:49-50; SCH, 336-37.)

Berosa. Confederate. Steam transport blockade-runner. Sprang a leak on the St. Marys River and was abandoned on April 8, 1863, at latitude 29° 50' north, longitude 79° 50' west, in the Gulf of Mexico. The crew escaped. (ORN, 14:161; DANFS, 2:504.)

USS Bloomer (Bloomer) (Emma). Union. Side-wheel steamer, 130 tons. Armed with one 32-pounder smoothbore and one rifled 12-pounder. Built in 1856 at New Albany, Ind. Was captured from the Confederates by a small boat expedition from the USS Potomac and the 91st N.Y. Infantry Regiment in the Choctawhatchee River on December 24, 1864. Served as a tender to the USS Potomac. Wrecked in June 1865 in East Pass, Santa Rosa Island. Was salvaged and sold on September 22, 1865. (ORN, 22:233, 256; ser. 2, 1:46; WCWN, 102.)

CSS Camilla (America) (USS America) (Memphis).

Confederate. Racing yacht, 100 tons, 208 Thames measurement tons. Length 111 feet, beam 24 feet, draft 12 feet. Armed with one rifled 12-pounder and two 24-pounder smoothbores. Built in 1851 at New York City for a racing syndicate. The America won the Queen's Cup and became the namesake of the America's Cup yacht race. The Confederates planned to convert the America into a swift blockade-runner. The America was scuttled in 3

Florida | 39

fathoms of water in Haw Creek off the St. Johns River at the head of Dunn's Lake. Only the vessel's port rail was above water. Was raised by the USS Ottawa in March 1862. Was renamed USS America. Was later moved to the Naval Academy at Annapolis, Md., and in 1873 was sold to private concerns. The Eastern Yacht Club of Marblehead, Mass., presented the vessel to the U.S. Navy in 1921. The America collapsed in 1942 under the weight of snow at the U.S. Naval Academy at Annapolis and was scrapped in 1945. (OR, 53 [supp.]: 224-25; ORN, 12:615, 638-40, 643; CWC, 6-269; WCWN, 144.)

Caroline Gertrude. Schooner. Cargo of sixty bales of cotton. En route to Havana, Cuba. Was captured by the USS Stars and Stripes when the Caroline Gertrude ran aground on a bar immediately inside the mouth of the Ocklock-onee River, 100 yards from a beach, on December 29, 1863. Union sailors captured thirteen people onboard and removed forty-three bales of cotton. Confederate cavalry appeared on the beach, and a two-hour fight followed in which the Confederate commander was reported killed. Union sailors set the vessel afire before retiring. (ORN, 17:617-18.)

USS Columbine (A. H. Schultz). Union. Side-wheel steam gunboat tug, 133 bulk tons. Length 117 feet, beam 20 feet 7 inches, depth 6 feet 2 inches. Complement of twenty-five, with two 20-pounder Parrott rifles or two 25-pounder Dahlgren smoothbores. Built in 1850 at New York City. While returning from Volusia with 146-48 onboard, including a detachment of 25 soldiers of the 35th U.S. Colored Infantry Regiment, the USS Columbine was ambushed on the St. Johns River opposite Horse Landing by four guns of the Milton Artillery under Capt. J. J. Dickison near Palatka on May 23, 1864. Shells cut the wheel ropes, and the USS Columbine drifted 200 yards downstream and ran aground. The ship was shelled for one hour before surrendering. The Confederates boarded the wreck in rowboats, stripped the vessel, and burned it. Union losses were 17-20 killed and missing, 5-6 wounded, and 65 captured. Most of the wreck was removed, probably by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, in the 1880s. Located about a mile above Saratoga, on the edge of a sand bar on the east side of the St. Johns River. May have been covered and damaged by dredging during the building of the Cross-Florida Canal in the 1960s. Howard B. Tower found remnants of the wreck in 7 feet of water in 1971 and salvaged a number of artifacts. (OR, 35:2:123; ORN, 15:440-55; ser. 2, 1:62; Ammen, "Navy in the Civil War," Confederate Military History, 149; Keel, Florida's Trails, 155; Tower, "U.S.S. Columbine: Civil War Wreck Story with a Twist," Skin Diver, 54-56, 109; Florida Division of Historical Resources Web site, "U.S. Navy and Confederate Shipwrecks Project.")

Convey. Union. Steamer, 350 tons. Was burned and sank in 12 feet of water in 1864 in Pensacola Bay. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers had George W. Le Gallais remove most of the wreckage, including the machinery and half its hull, in 1878 and 1879. (Chief of Engineers Report 1879, 1:801-2; Broussara, "Judah: Sunken Civil War Schooner," Skin Diver, 168.)

Cygnet. Confederate. Pilot boat. Was captured by boats from the USS Sagamore at Apalachicola on March 30, 1862. Was grounded and burned on a 7-foot bar. (ORN, 17:202, 204.)

Delaware. Union. Side-wheel steamer, 616 or 650 tons. Length 225 feet, beam 29 feet, depth 10 feet 6 inches. Was lost inside St. Johns Bar on May 24, 1865. (OR, 47:3:580; MSV, 53; Lane, American Paddle Steamboats, 102-3.)

Director. British. Schooner. Crew of two. Cargo of one barrel of rum and twenty small bags of salt. En route from Nassau, Bahamas, to Peace Creek, Fla. Was captured on September 30, 1863, by the USS Gem of the Seas at Punta Rasa at the entrance to the Caloosahatchee River while coming out of Terraceia Creek. Was destroyed as unsea-worthy. (ORN, 17:560-62.)

Dudley (Pickney). Confederate. Sloop, 57 tons. Cargo of turpentine and rosin. Was destroyed on June 16, 1862, at Cedar Keys by the USS Hatteras. (ORN, 17:50; SCH, 336-37.)

Elizabeth. British. Sloop out of Nassau, Bahamas. Cargo of salt. Ran aground on a bar at the mouth of Jupiter Inlet. Was captured and burned by the USS Sagamore on January 28, 1863. (ORN, 17:359.)

Emma (Onward). Nationality unknown. Schooner, 70 tons. Was captured on March 23, 1863, at the mouth of the

Ocklockonee River in Apalachee Bay by a Union small boat expedition consisting of a pilot, two officers, and twenty-seven men from the USS Amanda. The captured vessel grounded and was attacked by Confederates from shore on March 24, 1863. Union forces burned the vessel 250 yards from shore. One of two Union boats was lost, with one killed and eight wounded in the fight. (ORN, 17:390-94; Robinson, Confederate Privateers, 241-43.)

Etta. Nationality unknown. Schooner. Crew of two. Was captured by boats from the USS Sagamore on March 31, 1864, and destroyed near Cedar Keys after they had searched three days for two other blockade-runners. (ORN, 17:676.)

Finland. Nationality unknown. Blockade-runner. Crew of fifteen. Partially dismantled in an entrance to Apala-chicola Bay. Was captured by two boats with forty Union seamen from the USS Montgomery and three boats from the USS R. R. Cuyler on August 26, 1861. Unable to get the captured vessel over St. Vincent's Bar, the Finland was burned to the water's edge upon the approach of a Confederate steamer towing a large schooner on August 28, 1861. The Confederates salvaged lifeboats and a few items from the burning wreck. (ORN, 16:646-47; Turner, Navy Grey, 34-35.)

Florida. Confederate. Sloop. Carried five aboard. Cargo of cotton. Was captured by the USS Sea Bird, tender to the USS Hibiscus. Was scuttled off Crystal River on April 11, 1865, as unfit to sail to Key West. (ORN, 17:834.)

Fortunate. Confederate. Sloop. Cargo of cotton bales and one barrel of turpentine. Was captured and under tow by the USS Bermuda near latitude 27° 53' north, longitude 79° 45' west, when it parted the hawser, filled with water, and was lost on May 30, 1864. (ORN, 27:677-78.)

Fulton (USS Fulton). Confederate. Side-wheel steamer, 698 tons, 750 bulk tons, 1,200 displacement tons. Length 180 feet or 180 feet 6 inches, beam 34 feet 8-10 inches, draft 10 feet 6 inches, maximum speed 11 knots. Complement of 79-130, with four 8-inch smoothbores and four 32-pounder smoothbores. Formerly a U.S. Navy ship, built in 1851 at Brooklyn, New York. Was captured by Confederates on January 12, 1861, at the Pensacola Navy Yard. Was destroyed on May 10, 1862, by Confederates after grounding near Pensacola when they abandoned the area to the Union forces. (ORN, ser. 2, 1:89; CWC, 6-230; WCWN, 24.)

General Finegan (Madge). Confederate. Small sloop. Cargo of two barrels of turpentine and five bales of cotton. En route to Havana, Cuba, from Florida's Crystal River. Was captured by two boats from the USS Ariel. The cargo was removed. Was destroyed as unseaworthy on May 28, 1864, just north of the Chassahowitzka River near the Ho-mosassa Bay. (ORN, 17:709-12.)

General Hunter (Bay Queen) (General Sedgwick) (Jacob H. Vanderbilt). Union army. Transport, 350 or 475 tons. Built as the Jacob H. Vanderbilt in 1863 in Jersey City, N.J. Was destroyed by a Confederate torpedo in the St. Johns River on April 16, 1864, at Mandarin Point near where the Maple Leaf was sunk. Sank in three to five minutes, with the quartermaster killed and another person wounded. Was raised and first renamed General Sedgwick and then Bay Queen as a post-Civil War vessel. (ORN, 15:314; Scharf, History of the Confederate Navy, 763; MSV, 80; Perry, Infernal Machines, 116.)

George C. Collins. U.S. Screw steamer, 234 tons. Stranded on March 27, 1865, in the St. Johns River. (MSV, 83, 263.)

USS G. L. Brockenboro (G. L. Brockenborough). Confederate. Small sloop. Was captured by the USS Fort McHenry after being scuttled in the Apalachicola River on October 15, 1862. Put into Union naval service as a tender to the USS Port Royal and USS Somerset. Its bottom was smashed during a gale on St. George's Sound on May 27, 1863, and the vessel was unable to be raised. (ORN, 17:321, 524-25; ser. 2, 1:89; WCWN, 145.)

Good Hope. Nationality unknown. Schooner, about 150 tons. Cargo of salt and a few dry goods. Was captured and burned by the USS Fox on April 18, 1864, near the mouth of the Homosassa River. (ORN, 17:683-84.)

Harriet A. Weed. Union army. Side-wheel steam transport, 210 or 290 tons. Armed with two guns. Built in 1863 at

Newburgh, N.Y. Was sunk by two Confederate torpedoes while towing a schooner and carrying thirteen officers and twenty men of the 3rd U.S. Colored Infantry Regiment on the morning of May 10, 1864, in the St. Johns River at Mandarin Point, near the mouth of Cedar Creek. One officer was blown 20 feet into the air, and five men were killed. It was a total loss. (OR, 35:2:88, 123; ORN, 15:426-27; Ammen, "Navy in the Civil War," Confederate Military History, 148; MSV, 92; Scharf, History of the Confederate Navy, 763; Perry, Infernal Machines, 116.)

Havana (Havanah). Confederate. Screw steamer, 169 tons. Length 115 feet 4 inches, beam 22 feet 6 inches. Carried a remaining cargo of ten tons of lead and cotton. Built in 1855 at Hoboken, N.J. Had already landed most of the cargo and was loading cotton when set afire and abandoned by its crew to prevent its capture by the USS Isilda, a tender to the USS Somerset, on June 5, 1862, in Deadman's Bay. Union sailors salvaged the jib, anchor, two chain cables, and three lead pigs. (ORN, 17:262; Horner, Blockade-Runners, 203; Shomette, Civil War Shipwrecks,

Helen. Confederate. Guard boat steamer. Was burned by Confederate troops at Pensacola on May 9, 1862, to prevent its capture. (OR, 6:658, 661.)

Helen. Confederate. Sloop. Cargo of corn. Out of Florida's Crystal River. Was captured and destroyed by a small boat expedition from the USS Lawrence, USS Sagamore, and USS Fort Henry on April 2 or 3, 1863, at the mouth of Bay-port Harbor. (ORN, 17:406-10; WCWN, 236; SCH, 390-91.)

Ida. Confederate. Schooner. Cargo of liquor. Formerly of Key West. Was run aground by the USS James S. Chambers about midway on Sanibel Island, 15 miles south of Charlotte Harbor. Was destroyed to prevent its recapture on March 4, 1863. (ORN, 17:379-80.)

Indian River (USS Clyde) (Neptune). Union. Side-wheel steamer, 260 or 294 bulk tons, 250 tons. Length 200 feet 6 inches or 166 feet 8 inches, beam 18 feet 6 inches or 27 feet 6 inches, depth 8 feet or 9 feet 6 inches, speed 9 knots. Built in 1861 at Glasgow, Scotland. Was captured as the blockade-runner Neptune on June 14, 1863, by the USS

Lackawanna. Was grounded at the mouth of the Indian River on December 3, 1865. Was probably raised and later lost in 1867. (MSV, 101, 269; LLC, 313-14; WCWN, 81.)

Inez. British. Old leaky schooner, 4 tons. Crew of three. Cargo of fifteen sacks of salt and fourteen pounds of shoe thread. Was captured and destroyed by the USS Gem of the Sea off Indian River Inlet on April 18, 1863. (ORN, 17:416-17.)

J. Appleton. Union. Schooner, 1,200 tons. Former revenue cutter. Cargo of water. At Egmont Key it parted its cable during a gale on August 15, 1861, near the lighthouse. Was driven ashore 30 feet above the low waterline. The wreck was stripped and burned. (ORN, 16:666-68.)

Jefferson Davis (Echo) (Jeff Davis) (Putnam) (Rattlesnake). Confederate. Privateer brig, 187 or 230 tons. Draft 10 feet 6 inches. Complement of seventy to seventy-nine, with old British guns, including two 24- or 18-pounders, two 12-pounders, and a long 18-pounder pivot. Built about 1845 at Baltimore. Out of Charleston, S.C. Formerly the slaver Echo, captured in 1853 by the USS Dolphin with a cargo of 271 slaves. Grounded on August 18, 1861, on the St. Augustine Bar in a half-gale after a successful voyage from Charleston, S.C., during which the Jefferson Davis took nine Union ships in 7 weeks. The guns on the starboard side were thrown overboard, but the crew was unable to refloat the ship. The crew abandoned the vessel, with only the small arms and stores saved. (ORN, ser. 2, 1:257; Scharf, History of the Confederate Navy, 78; CWC, 6-256.)

Judah (William J. Judah). Confederate. Two-mast privateer schooner, 250 tons. Complement of twenty-five. Armed with one pivot gun and four broadside cannons. A blockade-runner from St. John's, Newfoundland. Was captured and set afire while moored at the Pensacola Navy Yard Wharf in front of a two-gun Confederate battery at 3:30 a.m. on September 14, 1861, by one hundred Union sailors and marines in four launches from the USS Colorado. The two-gun battery on shore was spiked. Drifted to the middle of Pensacola Bay, burned to the water's edge, and sank opposite Fort Barrancas. The Union expedition lost three killed, including one marine accidentally killed by his own men, and thirteen wounded. The Confederates lost three killed and a number of men wounded. Thought to be located opposite Fort Barrancas near the mouth of Pensacola Bay, mostly under 4-5 feet of shifting sand. This wreck site could be the site of the Convoy or another vessel. (OR, 6:437-38, 666; ORN, 16:670-74; ser. 2, 1:257; CWC, 6-328; Porter, Naval History, 50-52; Broussara, "Ju-dah: Sunken Civil War Schooner," Skin Diver, 164-68.)

Kate Dale. Nationality unknown. Sloop. Cargo of cotton. Was captured by a small boat expedition of two acting ensigns and forty seamen from the USS Tahoma and two acting ensigns, one assistant engineer, and sixty seamen from the USS Adela. Set afire in the Hillsborough River, 2 miles above Tampa on October 16-17, 1863. The Union sailors lost three killed, one mortally wounded, and nine wounded, along with five captured in the fight. The Confederates lost two men captured, along with five captured on the blockade-runner. (ORN, 17:570-79.)

Lafayette. Confederate. Sloop. Was captured in St. Andrews Bay by boats from the USS Pursuit on April 4, 1862. Sprang a leak and foundered while in tow of the captured steamer Florida at sea on the way to Key West. (ORN, 17:208-9.)

Laura. Nationality unknown. Stern-wheel steamer, 83 tons. Built in 1855 at Elizabeth, Pa. Was lost in 1862 in Florida. (MSV 125, 275; WPD, 278.)

Little Lila (Flushing) (Little Lily) (Nan Nan). British. Blockade-runner steamer, 147 registered tons, 303 bulk tons. Length 156 feet 4 inches, beam 27 feet 2 inches, depth 8 feet 4 inches. Cargo of cotton. Built in 1860 at Brooklyn, N.Y., as the Flushing. Was destroyed by the USS Nita at the mouth of the East Pass of the Suwannee River on February 24, 1864. Some of the cotton was thrown overboard, and fifty-five bales were recovered. (ORN, 17:654-55, 658; Horner, Blockade-Runners, 203.)

Madison. Confederate. Side-wheel steamer, 99 tons. Probably built in 1855 at New Albany, Ind. Was scuttled on the rocks at Troy Springs by Capt. James Tucker, the owner, in September 1863. The ship's boilers, cabins, and smokestacks were removed during the Civil War. (Keel, Florida's Trails, 33; MSV, 133.)

Manderson. Union. Bark. Driven ashore by a gale near West Pass, St. George's Sound, on May 27, 1863. (ORN, 17:456.)

Maple Leaf. Union army. Double-stack side-wheel steam transport, 508 tons. Length 181 feet, beam 26 feet 6 inches. Built in the 1850s at Kingston, Ontario. Was sunk by a Confederate torpedo on April 1, 1864, while carrying baggage of the 112th N.Y. Infantry Regiment, 169 th N.Y. Infantry Regiment, and the 13th Ind. Infantry Regiment up the St. Johns River. Sank at McIntosh's Point opposite Doctor's Lake, 15 miles above Jacksonville. Four aboard were killed. The smokestacks and upper deck were above water. Was set afire by a company of the lst Ga. Infantry Regiment and a section of the Fla. Light Artillery the next day. The anchor and some equipment were probably removed during the Civil War. In 1882-83 the wreck was removed to a low-water depth of 19 feet by a U.S. Army Corps of Engineers contractor. In 1984 the wreck was located in 20 feet of water by Keith Holland and Lee Manley. In 1988 the St. Johns Archaeological Expeditions, Inc., received permits to excavate the wreck. East Carolina University assisted. Thousands of articles have been recovered, many of them now displayed at the Jacksonville Museum of Science and History. Some of the objects recovered were loot from Union expeditions. The wreck was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1994. (OR, 35:2:47, 397; ORN, 15:316; Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers to the Secretary of War for the Year 1883, 186, 955; Ammen, "Navy in the Civil War," Confederate Military History, 148; Babits, "Exploring a Civil War Sidewheeler," Archaeology, 48-50; Towart, "The Maple Leaf in Historical Perspective," Maple Leaf Shipwreck Web site.)

Mary. British. Sloop, 11 tons. Out of Nassau, Bahamas. Carried five crewmen and five passengers. Cargo of thirty-one bales of cotton. Was captured by boats from the USS Roebuck a mile inside Jupiter Inlet. Nine bales of cotton were taken aboard the USS Roebuck. A prize crew of one officer and four men put aboard. The sloop ran onto a reef in the Florida Keys while en route to Key West on January 22, 1864. The prize crew and cargo were saved by running the vessel onto the beach. (ORN, 17:633, 637.)

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Mary. Confederate. Small guard boat steamer. Was burned by Confederate troops at Pensacola on May 9, 1862, to prevent its capture. (OR, 6:658, 661.)

Mary Jane. Nationality unknown. Schooner. Ran ashore on a small key's beach near Clearwater Harbor, latitude 28° north, longitude 82° 53' west. Was destroyed by the USS Tahoma on June 18, 1863. (ORN, 17:477; Marine Magnetometer Survey ... Pinellas County, Fla., 12-13.)

Mary Nevis. Union. Sloop attached to the USS Ethan Allen. Grounded at Bayes Pass. Was stripped then set afire by the Union navy on February 20, 1861. (ORN, 17:133.)

Mary Olivia. Confederate. Pilot boat sloop. Was captured by boats from the USS Sagamore at Apalachicola on March 30, 1862. Was grounded on a 7 feet deep bar and burned. (ORN, 17:202, 204-5.)

Menemon Sanford (Memnorium Sanford). Union.

Steamer, 904 tons. Length 244 feet, beam 32 feet 7 inches, depth 12 feet. Built in 1854 at Greenpoint, N.Y. Carried five hundred officers and men of the 156th N.Y. Infantry Regiment. Ran onto Carysfort Reef, on December 10, 1862, at 6:20 a.m., a mile and a half south by west of the lighthouse, bearing south by west and heading south-southwest. The cargo was thrown overboard. The regiment was rescued by the USS Gemsbok and Blackstone without any loss of life. One company lost 127 rifle muskets with bayonets and its tent poles and pins. The steamer's engine was later salvaged and put into the George Levy in 1864. (OR, 15:608-9; ORN, 1:587; 19:401; MSV, 143, 281; Lane, American Paddle Steamboats, 110-11.)

USS Merrimac (Merrimac) (Nanis). Union. Iron side-wheel steamer, 684 tons, 634 gross tons, 536 registered tons. Length 230 feet, beam 30 feet, depth 11 feet, loaded draft 8 feet 6 inches, 4 boilers, maximum speed 11.5 knots, average maximum speed 8 knots. Complement of 519, with one 30-pounder Parrott, four 24-pounders, and one 12-pounder. Former Confederate blockade-runner captured by the USS Iroquois on July 24, 1863, off New Inlet, N.C. Off the Florida coast, the ship's tiller broke, and its boilers flooded, sinking the vessel on February 15, 1865, at latitude 29° 11' north, longitude 79° 12' west, during a northeast gale. The mail steamer Morning Star rescued the crew. (ORN, 12:38-41, 43; ser. 2, 1:141; LLC, 312.)

Neptune. Confederate. Schooner. Sank in the Hillsborough River near Tampa in 1863. (ORN, 17:575.)

New Island. Confederate. Schooner. Was captured with two pilot boats, the Mary Olive and Cygnet, by boats from the USS Sagamore at Apalachicola on March 30, 1862. Was grounded on the bar at 7 feet and burned. (ORN, 17:202,

Norman. Union. Schooner. Was captured by Confederates near the Perdido River mouth in November 1863. As the USS Bermuda approached it, the Norman was run aground by the prize crew and set afire to avoid capture. (ORN, 20:675-76.)

Oconee (Everglade) (Savannah) (CSS Savannah). Confederate. Side-wheel steamer, 160, 475, or 486 tons; 406 bulk tons. Length 169 feet 6 inches or 173 feet, beam 30 feet or 28 feet 8 inches, depth 8 feet 6 inches or 8 feet. Crew of forty-three. Cargo of cotton. Built in 1856 at New York City. Formerly the steamer Everglade, which was converted to the gunboat CSS Savannah with one 32-pounder. Fought at Port Royal and Fort Pulaski, serving as a Confederate receiving ship. Converted to the blockade-runner Oconee. Foundered at sea south of St. Catherine's Island, Ga., the night of August 18-19, 1863, after coming out from Savannah during bad weather. One boat with four officers and eleven men was captured by a Union ship off Florida on August 20, 1863. The rest of the crew escaped. (ORN, 14:492-93; ser. 2, 1:266; 2:530; CWC, 6-298; DANFS, 2:564; MSV, 68; LLC, 319-20.)

O.K. Union. Small sloop. One crewman. En route to St. Marks. Was captured by the USS Santiago de Cuba on February 8, 1862, off Cedar Keys. Was swamped en route to the Union blockaders off St. Marks. (ORN, 1:356.)

Patriot. British. Schooner. Out of Nassau, Bahamas. Ran ashore 12-15 miles south of Mosquito Inlet. The USS South Carolina found the Patriot beached, holed, its masts cut down, and stripped of its cargo on August 27, 1862. (ORN,

Petee. Confederate. Sloop, 6 tons. Crew of three. Cargo of fifty sacks of salt from Nassau, Bahamas. Out of Savannah. Was destroyed by the USS Gem of the Sea while trying to enter the Indian River Inlet on March 10, 1863. (ORN,

Pilot. Confederate. Schooner. Was burned on October 21, 1862, by the USS E. B. Hale off the Florida coast. (SCH, 368-69.)

Powerful. Canadian. Wooden side-wheel steamer, 189 bulk tons, 119 registered tons. Length 126 feet, beam 23 feet. Built in 1862 at Quebec. Was grounded and captured by the USS Fox after being abandoned by the crew during its first run through the blockade. The captured ship was taking on water and was destroyed on December 20, 1863, at the mouth of a channel of the Suwannee River. The machinery was later destroyed to avoid Confederate salvage. (ORN, 17:608-9; LLC, 317.)

USS Preble. Union. Wooden sloop, 566 tons. Length 117 feet or 117 feet 7 inches, beam 32 feet or 33 feet 10 inches, depth 15 feet or 15 feet 8 inches, Complement of 150, with four 8-inch smoothbore guns, twelve 30-pounder Parrott rifles, and one 12-pounder. Was laid down in 1838 and launched in 1839 at the Portsmouth, N.H., Navy Yard. Was accidentally destroyed by fire on April 27, 1863, at Pensacola. U.S. Navy divers located what appears to be the wreck in 1963 and recovered some artifacts, including a mast. (ORN, ser. 2, 1:184; WCWN, 129; Florida Division of Historical Resources Web site, "U.S. Navy and Confederate Shipwrecks Project.")

Rattler. Confederate. Sloop, 66 tons. Was destroyed at Cedar Keys on January 16, 1862, by the USS Hatteras. (ORN, 17:49-50; SCH, 336-37.)

Rebel. Nationality unknown. Schooner. Crew of six. Cargo of salt, liquor, boxes of goods, and one bale of cotton. Was captured by boats from the USS Roebuck on February 27, 1864, at Fort Compton on the Indian River. The leaking vessel was destroyed and the cargo sent to Key West. (ORN, 17:655, 660.)

Rob Roy. Honduran. Schooner, 66 burden tons. Length 78 feet, beam 22 feet 6 inches, depth 6 feet, draft 13 feet. Crew of six. Cargo of cavalry sabers along with mechanical and farming equipment. Out of British Honduras (Belize). Ran aground and burned on the south side of Deadman's Bay while looking for the mouth of the Suwannee River on March 2, 1865, and being chased by the USS Fox, tender to the USS Stars and Stripes. The crew was captured, and some of the cargo was removed. (ORN, 17:825.)

Saint Mary's (USS Genesee) (Nick King) (St. Marys). Confederate. Side-wheel steamer, 337 tons. Cargo of cotton. Built in 1857 at Wilmington, Del. Sank 5 miles from Jacksonville in McGirt's Creek or Haw Haw Creek in March 1862. Was raised by Confederates but again was sunk by Union forces on February 9, 1864, in Alabama. Was raised again by Union forces, becoming the Nick King after the Civil War. (OR, 35:2:123; ORN, 12:615, 638, 640, 643; MSV, 69, 192.)

Sarah Mary. British. Sloop. Out of Nassau, Bahamas. Was captured on June 28, 1864, off Mosquito Inlet by Union forces. Was sunk as unseaworthy after the cargo was removed. (ORN, 17, 15:541; New York Times, July 23, 1864.)

Scottish Chief. Confederate. Wooden side-wheel steamer, 102 bulk tons. Length 123 feet 9 inches, beam 18 feet, depth 4 feet 9 inches. Cargo of cotton. Built in 1855 at Wilmington, N.C. Was captured and destroyed with the Kate Dale in the Hillsborough River, 2 miles above Tampa on October 16-17, 1863, by a Union small boat expedition consisting of five officers and one hundred men from the USS Tahoma and USS Adela. Two crewmen escaped. A nearby Confederate garrison attacked the Union raiding party. (ORN, 17:570-79; LLC, 320.)

Sort. British. Schooner, 33 tons. Out of Havana, Cuba. Assorted cargo, including twenty demijohns of liquor. Ran aground on St. Martin's Reef at the mouth of Crystal River by boats from the USS Honeysuckle on February 28, 1865. Had previously been captured on December 10, 1864, by the USS O. H. Lee off Anclote Keys, Fla., and returned to the British. (ORN, 17:824; LLC, 117.)

Sparkling Sea. Union. Transport. Carried seventy men of the 25th Battery, N.Y. Light Artillery, and 106 horses from Fort Monroe, Va., bound for Ship Island. Ran onto Ajax Reef on January 9, 1863, about 10 miles north of Carysfort Lighthouse. It was a total wreck by January 18. The horses and some stores were removed by the USS Sagamore.

The crew was in mutiny, and some were arrested. (OR, 15:231-233; ORN, 2:17-18, 272; 17:352.)

CSS Spray. Confederate. Steam gunboat tug, 105 tons. Armed with two guns. Possibly built in 1852 at Wilmington, Del. Was sunk by Confederates on the St. Marys River after November 5, 1864. (ORN, ser. 2, 1:267, LLC, 237.)

Stag. Confederate. Schooner, 200 tons. Was destroyed at Cedar Keys on January 16, 1862, by the USS Hatteras. (ORN, 17:49; SCH, 336-37.)

CSS Viper. Confederate. Torpedo boat with a movable spar torpedo on the bow. Built in December 1864 or January 1865 at Columbus, Ga. Was captured by Union cavalry forces during Wilson's Raid in April 1865. While being towed by the Yucca from Apalachicola to Key West, the CSS Viper started leaking in a storm. The prize crew was removed. Sank at 4:15 p.m. on May 26, 1865, at latitude 20° 12' north, longitude 83° 20' west. (ORN, 17:853-54; Taylor, Navy Grey, 234, 245-46.)

Wild Pigeon. Nationality unknown. Schooner, 37 tons. Out of Havana, Cuba. En route to Florida. Was struck amidships by the USS Hendrick Hudson on March 21, 1864 and sank in three minutes, with one crewman drowned. The remaining crewmen were put ashore 40 miles from Tampa. (ORN, 17:670-71; LLC, 91.)

William H. Middleton. Confederate. Sloop, 69 tons. Was destroyed at Cedar Keys on January 16, 1862, by the USS Hatteras. (ORN, 17:49-50; SCH, 336-37.)

Wyfe (Nye). Confederate. Schooner. Was destroyed at Cedar Keys on January 16, 1862, by the USS Hatteras. (ORN, 17:49-50; SCH, 336-37.)

Young Racer. British. Sloop. Cargo of salt. Was run ashore and destroyed 15 miles north of Jupiter Inlet by boats from the USS Roebuck on January 14, 1864. (ORN, 17:633-34.)

> vessels without names barge. Confederate. Was sunk with stone across the St. Mark River, a mile and a half below Port Leon. (ORN, 17:498, 500.)

schooner. Confederate. Cargo of three hundred bales of cotton. Was burned by Confederates on April 2, 1863, to prevent its capture by a Union small boat expedition from the USS Lawrence, USS Sagamore, and USS Fort Henry in Bayport Harbor. (ORN, 17:406-10.)

schooner. Nationality unknown. Cargo of six bales of cotton and one barrel of turpentine. Sank in Indian River Inlet in June 1864. Two cotton bales were salvaged by the USS Roebuck's launch. (ORN, 17:730-31.)

schooner. Nationality unknown. Eighty tons. Assorted cargo, including ammunition. Was grounded upon the approach of the USS Anna on March 2, 1864. Was burned by the crew in Deadman's Bay. (ORN, 17:664.)

schooner. Nationality unknown. Was driven ashore on December 11, 1862, by the USS Bienville at St. John's River. (ORN, 12:393-94.)

schooner. Nationality unknown. Was with the Etta when it was destroyed on March 31, 1864, by a Union small boat expedition from the USS Sagamore, which had been searching for three days for two blockade-runners near Cedar Keys. (ORN, 17:676.)

vessels. Confederate. A sailboat, launch, and ferry scow were destroyed at Cedar Keys on January 16, 1862, by the USS Hatteras. (ORN, 17:48-50; SCH, 336-37.)

vessels. Confederate. Five fishing smacks were partially laden with goods. Three schooners carried lumber and turpentine. Was captured and destroyed by the USS Hat-teras at Sea Horse Key and near Cedar Keys on the night of January 16, 1862. May have also been burned by Confederates to avoid capture. (ORN, 12:473; New York Times, January 27, 1862.)

vessels. Confederate. Some carried cargoes of cotton. Was destroyed by the USS Beauregard, USS Oleander, and boats from the USS Sagamore and USS Para at New Smyrna on July 28, 1863. (ORN, 17:529-30.)

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