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California was vital to the Union effort in the Civil War as it supplied gold to help fuel the Union economy. Although California was relatively removed from the Civil War battles, pro-Confederate sentiment was strong in some areas of the state. Wrecks along the California coast and inland rivers resulted from fires, storms, boiler explosions, and groundings. The CSS Shenandoah had a plan to attack San Francisco, but the Civil War ended before it could be executed.

Acadia. Nationality unknown. Bark. Hit rocks at Trinidad on February 4 (or March 2), 1861. The steam tug Mary Ann recovered the Acadia's anchor while looking for the wreck of the Brother Jonathan in 1865. (Marshall, California Shipwrecks, 163; Jackson, Doghole Schooners, 22.)

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Ada Hancock (Milton Willis). Union. Twin screw steamer, 83 tons. Length 65 feet. Built in 1858 or 1859 at San Francisco. While ferrying sixty passengers and $45,000 to the waiting San Francisco-bound steamer Senator, the Ada Hancock's boiler exploded, and it sank on April 27, 1863, in Wilmington Harbor at San Pedro, about 1,000 yards from shore. It took twenty-six lives and injured thirty-seven, of which twenty-three later died. (MSV, 145, 281; New York Times, May 3, 1863; Marshall, California Shipwrecks, 24.)

Aeolus. Union. Brig. Wrecked on January 28, 1863, one and a half miles south of the Humboldt Bay Bar. (Marshall, California Shipwrecks, 146; Jackson, Doghole Schooners, 22, 33; Gibbs, Shipwrecks Pacific Ocean, 274.)

California | 25

Alcyone (Alcyona). Union. Schooner, 88 tons. Built in 1861. Capsized in a heavy gale at the Noyo River in Noyo Harbor on February 17 (January 12-16), 1863. (Marshall, California Shipwrecks, 130; Jackson, Doghole Schooners, 32; California State Lands Shipwreck Web site.)

Amazon. Union. Lumber schooner. Came ashore near the entrance of San Francisco Bay at Cliff House on May 14, 1865. Was salvaged. (Marshall, California Shipwrecks, 101.)

Anglo American. Wrecked in 1861 at Tomales Bay. (Marshall, California Shipwrecks, 120; MSV, 10.)

Annie B. Bourne (Hannah B. Bourne). Union. Schooner. Snagged in the Sacramento River at Sutterville (near Sacramento) on August 5, 1862. (California State Lands Commission, Historical Sites and Shipwrecks along the Sacramento River, 109; California State Lands Shipwreck Web site.)

Ann Perry. Bark, 348 tons. Length 197 feet, beam 27 feet. Cargo of lumber and 250 sacks of potatoes. Built in 1825. From Puget Sound. Came ashore a few miles south of Cliff House on January 4, 1865, with three aboard drowned. (Gibbs, Shipwrecks Pacific Ocean, 275; Marshall, California Shipwrecks, 101; California State Lands Shipwreck Web site.)

Aquila. Union. Ship. Just arrived in San Francisco with parts for the Union monitor USS Comanche, which was to be built to protect California from Confederate commerce raiders such as the CSS Shenandoah. Was sunk by a storm or Confederate agents at Hathaway's Wharf in November 1864, in 37-39 feet of water. Four divers quickly salvaged the parts of the USS Comanche. The USS Comanche was launched on November 14, 1864, and commissioned on May 24, 1865. The CSS Shenandoah planned to attack San Francisco, but the Civil War ended before it reached California waters. (MSV, 12; Stern, Confederate Navy Pictorial History, 164; Marshall, California Shipwrecks, 71-72, 76.)

Beeswing. Union. Schooner. From Monterey, Calif. Wrecked near the Golden Gate, with eight dead, in February 1863. (Marshall, California Shipwrecks, 97, 101.)

Bianca. Schooner. Cargo of wood. Ran ashore in December 1861 at Salt Point. (Marshall, California Shipwrecks, 120.)

Brother Jonathan (Commodore). Union. Wooden side-wheel steamer, 1,359 tons. Length 220 feet, beam 36 feet. Owned by the California Steam Navigation Co. Carried 120 cabin passengers, 72 steerage passengers, and 50 officers and crew. Cargo of 346 barrels of whiskey, 100 tons of machinery for the Providence Mining Co., mill equipment, $10,000 in Indian treaty funds entrusted to Indian agent William Logan, and $200,000 in currency in a U.S. Army payroll. Also rumored to have $850,000 in gold (1890 value), $140,000 sent by Wells Fargo and Co. and possibly Haskins and Co., and $1 million being carried by a New York businessman to invest in the goldfields. Built in 1851 in New York City. Was reportedly overloaded when it left San Francisco for Fort Vancouver, Washington Territory. Capt. Samuel J. De Wolf said the vessel was overloaded but was told by the company's agent that he must take the Brother Jonathan out or the company would find a captain who would. The Brother Jonathan dropped cargo off at Crescent City, Calif., and headed out to sea. Unable to make headway in a raging storm, the Brother Jonathan turned around 4 miles north of the latitude of Point St. George, about 3 miles above Crescent City, and tried on July 30, 1865, to make the Crescent City Harbor. The fury of the storm forced the Brother Jonathan onto Northwest Seal Rock, a ledge just one yard above the water surface at low tide. This ledge is part of St. George's Reef, which is located 8 to 12 miles from Crescent City. Among those drowned was Brig. Gen. George Wright, of the U.S. Army, who was en route to his new command in the Department of Columbia. Also drowned was a colonel of the 9th U.S. Infantry Regiment. Altogether 213 people died; only 11 men, 5 women, and 3 children in one boat survived. Two other lifeboats were launched but were swamped. The vessel then slid off the rocks into 250 feet of water, near St. George's Reef Lighthouse close to the Dragon Channel. The bodies of General Wright and Maj. Ellery W. Eddy, the army paymaster, were recovered. Eddy had a premonition he would die during the trip. Some 170 bodies were recovered, mostly from Pelican Bay, north of Crescent City. Sixteen bodies were recovered between Gold Bluffs and Trinidad. Several bodies were found at the entrances to the Rogue and Smith rivers. Forty-six wreck victims were buried in the Crescent City Cemetery. Its wheelbox floated ashore, and the golden wooden eagle from the wreck is now in the San Francisco Maritime Museum. The wreck's wheel and 40 feet of the upper deck came ashore near Gold Bluff.

The tug Mary Ann from San Francisco arrived soon after the wreck but failed to find the Brother Jonathan or retrieve any objects or pieces from it. In 1867 William Ireland hunted unsuccessfully for the wreck. In 1869 and 1872 other salvage groups also failed to locate the wreck. There were attempts in the 1890s to pinpoint the wreck by a Mr. Woods and a Captain Gee. In the 1930s a fisherman caught in his net an old almost unrecognizable Francis Patent lifeboat that probably came from the Brother Jonathan. The nearly destroyed lifeboat contained a rotting valise under a seat with eleven gold bars weighing 22 pounds. Due to the outlawing of gold ownership at that time, the gold bars were hidden until 1974, when the gold was sold. The wreck of the Brother Jonathan was found in 1993 by Deep Sea Research, Inc., using sophisticated equipment and was claimed in court by the treasure-hunting group. The wreck broke in half and rests in two pieces at a depth of about 250 feet off St. George Reef, just southeast of Jonathan Rock near the Dragon Channel. The lower part of the vessel remained intact. Many coins ($5, $10, and $20 gold pieces) and bullion have been removed along with bottles, ceramics, and other material. The vessel was sitting upright on the bottom, much of it buried in the mud. The upper structure has disintegrated over time. Artifacts from the vessel have been exhibited at the Del Norte Count Historical Society. A lawsuit over ownership of the Brother Jonathan between California's State Lands Commission and Deep Sea Research went to the U.S. Supreme Court. In a negotiated settlement Deep Sea Research received 80 percent of the material, with the remaining 20 percent to go to the state of California. Coins and gold removed from the vessel have been displayed and sold. About a thousand coins and bars with a value of about $5 million were removed from the wreck. (OR, 48:2:1200; Potter, Treasure Diver's Guide, 422; MSV, 247; Marshall, California Shipwrecks, 157-61, 163; Marshall, Oregon Shipwrecks, 1-11; Vesiland, Lost Gold of the Republic, 255; Wiltse, Gold Rush Steamers, 304-6; Hollister, "Revealed: The Phantom Treasure of the Brother Jonathan," Treasure, 58-61, 65; Riley, "Brother Jonathan Search Con tinues," Treasure Diver, 8-12; Tompkins, Treasure, 164-65; California State Lands Shipwreck Web site, "Brother Jonathan"; "Deal Allows Salvage Firm to Keep Much of Sunken Ship's Treasure," Sacramento Bee, March 19, 1999.)

Cabot. Nationality unknown. Brig. Sank on March 10, 1865, at Mendocino, Calif. (Jackson, Doghole Schooners, 22.)

Caroline. Nationality unknown. Schooner, 80 tons. Wrecked in 1863 in Mendocino County. (California State Lands Shipwreck Web site.)

Caroline Reed. Nationality unknown. Was lost in December 1864 between Bellingham, Washington Territory, and San Francisco. Could be off the Oregon or Washington coast. (Marshall, California Shipwrecks, 91.)

Charlotte. Union. Schooner. Built in 1861 at Point Arena, Calif. Was lost on February 5, 1865, at the mouth of the Klamath River. Later refloated. (Marshall, California Shipwrecks, 163; Jackson, Doghole Schooners, 22, 36.)

Cleopatra. Nationality unknown. Bark. Cargo of lumber. En route from the Puget Sound to San Francisco. Burned on July 1, 1861, off the California coast. (Gibbs, Shipwrecks Pacific Ocean, 274; Marshall, California Shipwrecks, 91.)

Cochief. Union. Schooner, 69 tons. Wrecked on January 30, 1863, or 1865, at Fish Rock, Point Arena. (Marshall, California Shipwrecks, 131; Jackson, Doghole Schooners, 22, 36.)

Constantine. Nationality unknown. Schooner. Wrecked at Cuffey's Cove in November 1862. (Jackson, Doghole Schooners, 36.)

Cuffey's Cove. Nationality unknown. Schooner. Wrecked at Cuffey's Cove in 1861. (Jackson, Doghole Schooners, 36.)

Curacao. Nationality unknown. Brig. Went ashore on December 22, 1862. (Marshall, California Shipwrecks, 131.)

C. W. Gunnel (G. W. Gunnel). Nationality unknown. Schooner. Was stranded at Point Arena in December 1862. (Marshall, California Shipwrecks, 131.)

Dashaway. Nationality unknown. Schooner. En route from Eureka to San Francisco. Was beached at Big Flat in December 1864. Found on January 3, 1865, about 22 miles south of Cape Mendocino, with fourteen dead, includ ing Captain Kelsey, his wife, and child; another couple; and nine crewmen. May also have been stranded on December 30, 1863. (Marshall, California Shipwrecks, 146; Jackson, Doghole Schooners, 21, 36; California State Lands Shipwreck Web site.)

Dictator. Nationality unknown. Bark. Probably sailed from Hong Kong. Capsized between Puget Sound and San Francisco in January 1862. (Marshall, California Shipwrecks, 91.)

Don Leandro. Nationality unknown. Two-masted lumber schooner, 86 tons. Wrecked at Little River on November 17, 1865. Was refloated and wrecked again in 1872 and 1883. (Marshall, California Shipwrecks, 131; Jackson, Doghole Schooners, 22, 36.)

Eagle. Nationality unknown. Schooner. Was stranded in a gale in May 1865 at Russian Gulch. May also have been stranded in 1863. (Marshall, California Shipwrecks, 131; California State Lands Shipwreck Web site.)

Efina Kuyne. Dutch. Galliot. Wrecked in 1862 at Half Moon Bay. (Marshall, California Shipwrecks, 49; California State Lands Shipwreck Web site.)

Eliza. Nationality unknown. Wooden barge. Sank in front of the old town of Washington (West Sacramento) on the Yolo County side of the Sacramento River after hitting the Governor Dana on December 3, 1864. Part of the cargo floated off. May have been raised. (California State Lands Commission, Historical Sites and Shipwrecks along the Sacramento River, 59, 111.)

Elizabeth Buckley. Nationality unknown. Schooner. Cargo of lumber. Stranded with one lost on July 10, 1864, at Point Arena. (Marshall, California Shipwrecks, 131; Jackson, Doghole Schooners, 22.)

European. Nationality unknown. Wrecked at Tomales Bay in 1861. (Gibbs, Shipwrecks Pacific Ocean, 38; Jackson, Dog-hole Schooners, 22, 38; Marshall, California Shipwrecks, 121.)

Fabrius. Union. Whaler. Was lost off the California coast in 1861. (Hearn, Gray Raiders, 291.)

Far West. Nationality unknown. Two-masted schooner. Was stranded on February 17 (or January 15), 1863, at Rus sian Gulch. (Marshall, California Shipwrecks, 131; Jackson, Doghole Schooners, 22, 39.)

Flying Dragon. Union. Ship, 1,127 tons. Cargo of one thousand tons of coal from Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia. Built in 1853. Sank during a storm near Arch Rock, San Francisco Bay, on the night of January 29, 1862. A tug and soldiers from Fort Alcatraz tried to help, but the vessel rolled over the next morning. In 1877 the vessel was located by dragging in 20 fathoms, 270 yards west of Arch Rock. (Marshall, California Shipwrecks, 72, 77; Gibbs, Shipwrecks Pacific Ocean, 274.)

Francis Helen (Francis Ellen). Nationality unknown. Schooner. Cargo of railroad ties and pilings. En route from Bells Harbor or Little River. Drifted ashore at Bell's Creek on the reef on the south side of the port entrance in April or on October 6, 1863. (Marshall, California Shipwrecks, 131, Jackson, Doghole Schooners, 40.)

F. W. Bailey. Nationality unknown. Ship, 711 tons. Length 160 feet, beam 33.3 feet. Built in 1854. En route to Puget Sound to get lumber for Australia. The wind died, and its anchor failed to hold the vessel against the currents outside the San Francisco heads. The F. W. Bailey went onto the rocks 3 miles south of Point Lobos on January 8, 1863. Capt. L. R. Dyer and nine members of the crew died. (Marshall, California Shipwrecks, 102; Gibbs, Shipwrecks Pacific Ocean, 274; California State Lands Shipwreck Web site.)

Galveston. Nationality unknown. Brig. Was stranded on May 21, 1863, at Kents Point, Mendocino. (Marshall, California Shipwrecks, 131.)

George Washington. Nationality unknown. Was lost in December 1864 off the northern California coast. (Marshall, California Shipwrecks, 92.)

Gina Reed. Nationality unknown. Schooner. Was stranded at Stewart's Point in November 1861. (Marshall, California Shipwrecks, 121.)

Goddess. Nationality unknown. Vessel type unknown. Was grounded in 1865 in San Francisco County. (California State Lands Shipwreck Web site.)

Golden State. Nationality unknown. Schooner. Sank at its moorings in Mendocino Bay during a storm on November 17, 1865. (Marshall, California Shipwrecks, 131, Jackson, Doghole Schooners, 42.)

Gypsy. Union. Stern-wheel steamer, 113 tons. Built in 1850 at Wilmington, Del. Snagged in the Sacramento River, 20 miles below Sacramento, near Lugkin's Ranch, on September 2, 1862. (California State Lands Commission, Historical Sites and Shipwrecks along the Sacramento River, 111; MSV, 90.)

Hartford. Nationality unknown. Bark. Wrecked in October 1861 or 1864 on the Humboldt Bar. (Marshall, California Shipwrecks, 146.)

Helen. Union. Two-mast schooner, 121 or 65 tons. Built in 1863 or 1864 at Point Arena, Calif. Went ashore at Point Arena on November 17, 1865. (Marshall, California Shipwrecks, 132; Jackson, Doghole Schooners, 22, 43; Gibbs, West Coast Windjammers, 146.)

H. T. Clay. Nationality unknown. Schooner. Was stranded in December 1862 in the Noyo River. (Marshall, California Shipwrecks, 132.)

Hyack. Nationality unknown. Bark. Wrecked on a reef off Cape Mendocino on April 23, 1863. (Marshall, California Shipwrecks, 146.)

Isca. Nationality unknown. Went aground in a storm in San Francisco Bay on November 16, 1863. (Marshall, California Shipwrecks, 77.)

J. A. McClennan (J. A. McClelland) (Rainbow). Union. Stern-wheel steamer, 73 tons. Built in 1860 or 1861 at San Francisco. Its boiler blew up while on the Sacramento River, killing twenty-five on August 25, 1861. The boiler landed 350 yards away on shore. The pilot was blown 200 feet into the air. Sank in 15 minutes, 1-3 miles below Knight's Landing. Was salvaged and renamed Rainbow before being dismantled in 1873. (California State Lands Commission, Historical Sites and Shipwrecks along the Sacramento River, 112; Marshall, California Shipwrecks, 77; MSV, 104.)

J. E. Murcock. Nationality unknown. Schooner. Was stranded in the Noyo River in December 1862 and possibly in 1864 in Mendocino County. (Marshall, California Shipwrecks, 132; California State Lands Shipwreck Web site.)

Jenny Ford. Nationality unknown. Bark, 396 tons. Length 133 feet, beam 30 feet 4 inches. Built in 1854. Was grounded in San Francisco County on January 29, 1864, with one dead. (Marshall, California Shipwrecks, 102; California State Lands Shipwreck Web site.)

J. M. Chapman. Union. Schooner, 90 tons. Was captured as a Confederate privateer by the USS Cyane in 1863. Part of a Confederate plot to intercept California gold shipments. Was lost in December 1864 between Shoalwater Bay and San Francisco. (Marshall, California Shipwrecks, 92.)

Josephine Wilcutt. Union. Schooner, 86 tons. Wrecked at Newport on the Mendocino Coast in April 1863. (Marshall, California Shipwrecks, 132; Jackson, Doghole Schooners, 46.)

J. R. Whiting (J. R. Whitney). Nationality unknown. Schooner. Was lost in the Noyo River on February 13 (or 16), 1863. Was refloated and repaired. Was lost with seven men without a trace on November 17, 1865, while tied up in Noyo Harbor or Kents Point along the Mendocino coast. (Marshall, California Shipwrecks, 132; Jackson, Doghole Schooners, 22, 45.)

Julius Pringle. Nationality unknown. Ship. Was lost on September 27, 1863, at Monterey, with one dead. (Marshall, California Shipwrecks, 48.)

Kaluna. Nationality unknown. Schooner, 96 tons. Wrecked on Humboldt Bar in January 1862. (Marshall, California Shipwrecks, 147; Jackson, Doghole Schooners, 46.)

Kate Blackstone (Kate Blakiston). Union. Schooner. Crew of three. Cargo of general merchandise. Out of San Francisco. Capsized at the foot of Sacramento's I Street in the Sacramento River, within 100 feet of the east bank, on June 15, 1865. Two crewmen drowned. The steam engine hoist was salvaged on June 22, 1865. Was probably not raised. (Marshall, California Shipwrecks, 77; California State Lands Commission, Historical Sites and Shipwrecks along the Sacramento River, 69, 112; Sacramento Union, June 12, 20, 22, 1865; Daily Examiner, June 19, 1865; California State Lands Shipwreck Web site.)

Maggie Johnston. Nationality unknown. Schooner. Was stranded in 1863 in San Mateo County. (Marshall, California Shipwrecks, 48.)

Malabar. Nationality unknown. Schooner. Wrecked in Mendocino in January 1864. (Marshall, California Shipwrecks, 132; Jackson, Doghole Schooners, 22.)

Marin. Nationality unknown. Schooner. Was lost at Tomales Bay in October 1861. (Marshall, California Shipwrecks, 121.)

Mary Ann. Nationality unknown. Steam schooner, 102 tons. Built in 1852. Wrecked on January 28, 1863, one and a half miles south of Humboldt Bar. Was refloated on June 29, 1863. (Marshall, California Shipwrecks, 147, Gibbs, Shipwrecks Pacific Ocean, 274.)

Maryland. Nationality unknown. Schooner. Lost at Cape Mendocino on October 7, 1862. (Marshall, California Shipwrecks, 147; California State Lands Shipwreck Web site.)

Mary Martin. Nationality unknown. Schooner. Stranded in 1863 in San Mateo County. (Marshall, California Shipwrecks, 49.)

Merrimac. Union. Screw steam tug, 100 tons. Built in 1862 at San Francisco. Capsized at 12:30 p.m. on February 22, 1863, while trying to cross Humboldt Bar. Thirteen to eighteen aboard were lost. Floated onto the North Spit, bottom up, then floated free on the next high tide and struck again near Bulksport. Was later salvaged. (Marshall, California Shipwrecks, 147; Jackson, Doghole Schooners, 50; MSV, 143; Gibbs, Shipwrecks Pacific Ocean, 192-94, 274.)

Metis. Nationality unknown. Schooner. Wrecked in a gale at Casper on November 17, 1865. (Marshall, California Shipwrecks, 132; Jackson, Doghole Schooners, 21, 50.)

Monitor. Union. Barge. Crew of two. Cargo of thirty tons of hay and a wagon. Constructed from the hull of the steamer Monitor. Was burned and sank on July 25, 1864, in the Sacramento River about 2 miles downstream of Rio Vista. The barge was being towed by the steamer Christina when the accident occurred. (California State Lands Commission, Historical Sites and Shipwrecks along the Sacramento River, 75, 113.)

Monterey. Union. Schooner, 120 tons. Was lost at Point Reyes in November 1861 or 1862. (Marshall, California Shipwrecks, 121; California State Lands Shipwreck Web site.)

Mosquito. Union. Barge. Cargo of one hundred cords of wood. Snagged and sank in the Sacramento River below Sacramento's I Street Bridge on July 29, 1864. The wood was salvaged. (California State Lands Commission, Historical Sites and Shipwrecks along the Sacramento River, 77, 113; Sacramento Union, June 16, 1865.)

Nevada. Union. Side-wheel steamer, 757 tons. Built in 1861 at San Francisco. Snagged in 1863 in Steamboat Slough, upstream of Rio Vista, while racing the steamer New World. Ran into a bank of Cache Slough in quicksand and sank, with no lives lost. Part of the wreck was reported to have been visible at the point where Cache Slough and Steamboat Slough meet. (California State Lands Commission, Historical Sites and Shipwrecks along the Sacramento River, 83, 113; MSV, 154, 284; Marshall, California Shipwrecks, 74; Drago, Steamboaters, 228; Holden, Sacramento, 287; Gibbs, Shipwrecks Pacific Ocean, 274.)

Ninus. Nationality unknown. Bark. Was sunk on November 16, 1861, in the Sacramento River below R Street in Sacramento. (California State Lands Commission, Historical Sites and Shipwrecks along the Sacramento River, 114.)

Noonday. Union. Clipper ship, 2,000 tons. Length 200 feet, beam 38.5 feet. Built in 1855. Out of Boston. Was lost on January 1 or 2, 1863. The vessel sunk in 40 fathoms when it hit Fanny Rock in the Farallons, which supposedly had risen because of an earthquake. The pilot boat Relief rescued the crew. Fanny Rock was renamed Noonday Rock. (Gibbs, Shipwrecks Pacific Ocean, 274; Marshall, California Shipwrecks, 87, 92; California State Lands Shipwreck Web site.)

Novick (Norvick). Russian navy. Steam corvette. Wrecked on September 26, 1863, 2 miles north of Point Reyes. In November 1863 one rifled brass cannon, four 24-pound-ers, and several powder chests were removed from the wreck. (Marshall, California Shipwrecks, 122; California State Lands Shipwreck Web site; Gibbs, Shipwrecks Pacific Ocean, 275.)

O.K. Union. Side-wheel steamer, 43 or 78 tons. Cargo of wood. Built in 1862 at San Lorenzo, Calif. Was burned on the Yolo County side of the Sacramento River across from Sacramento's M Street on July 3, 1865. Was salvaged but was later lost, in 1867 or 1881. (California State Lands Commission, Historical Sites and Shipwrecks along the Sacramento River, 87, 114; MSV, 160, 286; MacMullen, Paddle Wheel Days, 139; Sacramento Union, July 3, 1865.)

Paul Pry. Union. Side-wheel steamer, 229, 350, or 330 tons. Built in 1856 or 1859 at San Francisco. Hit a rock at Alcatraz Island in San Francisco Bay and sank on December 22, 1862. Was later salvaged. (Marshall, California Shipwrecks, 78; MSV, 169; MacMullen, Paddle Wheel Days, 139.)

Phoebe Fay. Nationality unknown. Schooner. Wrecked on November 17, 1865, at Little River. Was later salvaged. (Marshall, California Shipwrecks, 132; Jackson, Doghole Schooners, 22.)

Pike. Nationality unknown. Wooden barge. Snagged in the Sacramento River below Sacramento's I Street Bridge on June 29, 1864. (California State Lands Commission, Historical Sites and Shipwrecks along the Sacramento River, 114.)

Polynesia. Union. Clipper ship, 1,084 tons. Built in Boston. Went ashore on South Beach, San Francisco Bay, on March 1, 1862. The crew set the vessel afire. The wreck was later sold at auction. (Gibbs, Shipwrecks Pacific Ocean, 274; Marshall, California Shipwrecks, 78.)

Relief (Pilot Boat No. 2). Union. Pilot boat. Built in 1845. Capsized in a storm in February 1863 at the breakers at San Francisco Bar. Four crewmen died. (Marshall, California Shipwrecks, 97, 103.)

Republic. Union. Steamer. Built in 1855. Was lost in January 1862 at the Golden Gate. (Marshall, California Shipwrecks, 103.)

Rosalie. Nationality unknown. Schooner. Was stranded at Point Arena in January 1862. (Marshall, California Shipwrecks, 132.)

Sagamore. Nationality unknown. Schooner. Cargo of granite and cobbles. Foundered in a storm 4 miles above Point Pinole on November 26, 1864. One crewman died. (Marshall, California Shipwrecks, 79.)

Salinas. Union. Screw steamer, 131 tons. Built in 1861 at San Francisco. Was swamped at the mouth of the Salinas River and ran ashore on October 31, 1861. The cargo was salvaged, and the ship was raised. (MSV, 192; Marshall, California Shipwrecks, 48.)

Sarah Louise. U.S. Ship. Driven ashore in a storm on November 11, 1865, about 21 miles northwest of Tennessee Cove. (Marshall, California Shipwrecks, 122.)

Sea Nymph. Clipper ship, 1,215 tons. Built in 1853. Sank on May 4, 1861, at Point Reyes, with two killed. (Marshall, California Shipwrecks, 115-16, 122; California State Lands Shipwreck Web site; Gibbs, Shipwrecks Pacific Ocean, 274.)

Senator. Union. Side-wheel steamer, 121 tons. Built in 1846 at Wheeling, Va. (now W. Va.). Wrecked on March 12, 1863, at the entrance to San Pedro Harbor. Was probably raised. (Marshall, California Shipwrecks, 28; MSV, 197.)

S. F. Blunt. Nationality unknown. Schooner. Became waterlogged at Albion in November 1862. Was later salvaged. (Marshall, California Shipwrecks, 132.)

Shawmut. Nationality unknown. Ship. Was lost at Bird Rock in San Francisco in 1863. (Marshall, California Shipwrecks, 79.)

Shooting Star. Nationality unknown. Schooner. Built in 1860. Capsized in July 1861 off Bodega Bay. (Marshall, California Shipwrecks, 122; California State Lands Shipwreck Web site.)

Sir John Franklin. British. Ship, 999 tons. Cargo of lumber, dry goods, pianos, and two hundred barrels of spirits. Built in 1855. En route from Baltimore to San Francisco. On January 17, 1865, the vessel hit rocks halfway between Pigeon Point and Point Ano Nuevo at Franklin Point. Captain Dupeaux and twelve men were killed, but three survived. The cargo was salvaged. (Marshall, California Shipwrecks, 49; Daily Chronicle, January 19, 1865; Reinst-edt, Shipwrecks and Sea Monsters, 21-22.)

Sophie McLane (Sophie McLean). Union. Side-wheel or stern-wheel steamer, 242 tons. Built in 1858 or 1859 at San Francisco. Exploded on October 26, 1864, at the Suisan Bay Wharf, with thirteen dead or missing. The boiler was fabricated from the same batch of iron as the faulty boiler on the Washoe, which exploded on September 4 or 5, 1864.

The Sophie McLane was later salvaged. (MSV, 200, 298; Gibbs, Shipwrecks Pacific Ocean, 275; Marshall, California Shipwrecks, 79; California State Lands Commission, Historical Sites and Shipwrecks along the Sacramento River, 115; California State Lands Shipwreck Web site; MacMullen, Paddle Wheel Days, 29.)

Sovereign. Nationality unknown. Schooner. Parted the vessel's moorings at Navarro on December 27, 1862. Was apparently raised. (Marshall, California Shipwrecks, 133.)

Sparking Wave. Nationality unknown. Schooner. Was lost in January 1862 between San Francisco and Shoalwater Bay. (Marshall, California Shipwrecks, 92.)

Storm Cloud. Nationality unknown. Schooner, 118 tons. Cargo of 150,000 feet of lumber. Lost in a gale while tied up to moorings at Mendocino on November 17, 1865. (Marshall, California Shipwrecks, 133; Jackson, Doghole Schooners, 42, 51-55.)

Syren. Union. Clipper ship, 1,064 tons. Built in 1851 in Boston. Hit rocks twice at Mile Rock on April 25, 1861, returned to San Francisco harbor, and was beached in the flats with 4 feet of water in the hold. The cargo was unloaded. The ship was later towed to Mare Island, where its repairs cost $15,000. (Marshall, California Shipwrecks, 103.)

T. H. Allen. Nationality unknown. Schooner, 48 tons. Short of food and water after being driven northward for ten days in a storm. In desperation the T. H. Allen tried to cross Humboldt Bar and wrecked in January 1862. One crewman drowned, but the others were rescued. (Marshall, California Shipwrecks, 147; Jackson, Doghole Schooners, 55.)

Tongawanda. Nationality unknown. Schooner. Capsized 12 miles north of the San Francisco Heads in April 1862. (Marshall, California Shipwrecks, 103.)

Visalia. Union. Screw steamer, 76 tons. Built in 1860 at San Francisco. Was sunk in the Sacramento River at Hayes Bend, 3 miles above Nicholas, by a snag on May 25, 1864. Was probably raised. Abandoned in 1868. (California State Lands Commission, Historical Sites and Shipwrecks along the Sacramento River, 116; MSV, 222.)

Walcott (Charlotte Francis). Nationality unknown. Brig. Lost on May 18, 1863, at Bowens Landing. (Marshall, California Shipwrecks, 122.)

Washoe. Union. Steamer, 385 or 500 tons. Built in 1863 at San Francisco. Owned by the California Navigation & Improvement Co. The boilers overheated and blew up in Steamboat Slough, above the Hog's Back, on September 4 or 5, 1864. Sixteen whites and a score of Chinese died, and thirty-six people were seriously injured. Several of the injured later died in Sacramento. Was raised and repaired a few months later. (MSV, 227; Drago, Steamboaters, 228-30; Marshall, California Shipwrecks, 74, 80; California State Lands Shipwreck Web site; Holden, Sacramento, 287-90.)

Wasp. Union. Sloop. Cargo of cobble and bricks. From Freeport, Calif., bound for San Francisco. Hit a snag on January 12, 1865, at night and sank in Steamboat Slough. (Marshall, California Shipwrecks, 80; California State Lands Commission, Historical Sites and Shipwrecks along the Sacramento River, 105, 117; Sacramento Union, January 16, 1865.)

Yosemite. U.S. Steamer, 1,317, 1,319, or 631 tons. Length 283 feet. Carried 350 passengers and nearly a ton of gold and silver. Built in 1863 at San Francisco. The starboard boiler blew up on October 22, 1865, after leaving the wharf at Rio Vista. At least 29 Chinese and 13 to 22 people of European descent died. Another source says 150 died and 50 were injured. The wreck and its contents were raised. The vessel was cut in half, and 35 feet were later added when it returned to commerce. (Drago, Steamboaters, 230-31; Holden, Sacramento, 290; California State Lands Commission, Historical Sites and Shipwrecks along the Sacramento River, 117; Marshall, California Shipwrecks, 80; MSV, 235; MacMullen, Paddle Wheel Days, 30.)

Young America. Union. Side-wheel steamer, 359 or 179 tons. Built in 1854 or 1856 at San Francisco. Snagged on January 13, 1865, 8 miles below Marysville on the Feather River and broke in two. Its cargo and machinery were salvaged. (MSV, 235, 308; Marshall, California Shipwrecks, 80.)

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