Surviving World War III
Operate segregation throughout the Second World War. Viewed . through this optic, what the International Brigades symbolize is a certain spirit of future possibility. They were - though very imperfectly and by no means consciously - the soldiers of cosmopolitan cultural modernity. It was these egalitarian aspirations that shaped the idea of the Republicans' fight in the Civil War as 'the last great cause', as the front line in the fight for a more equal and inclusive form of politics in Europe and beyond. The survival of this idea long after Republican defeat was made possible not least by the extraordinarily intense quality of the comradeship and solidarity that so many of the foreign volunteers - whether soldiers or medical personnel - experienced in Spain and took away with them as an incandescent and life-changing memory. The poet Edwin Rolfe, who was with the Lincolns in Spain, expressed it thus as he later trained to fight in the World War humanitarian and medical supplies, was...
World War II and Civil War Although the Chinese contribution to Allied victory in World War II is often overlooked, China fought the Japanese Empire for far longer than any other belligerent nation. By the time that the Sino-Japanese War became absorbed into the wider conflict at the end of 1941, Chinese armies had already suffered huge casualties, and half the country had been lost. After Japan's defeat in 1945, China was immediately plunged back into civil war between Chiang Kai-shek's Nationalists and Mao Tse-tung's Communists the latter's victory in 1949 was to have historic consequences. This book covers the uniforms, equipment and weaponry of these campaigns.
For the Allies as well as the Russians, the civil war grew out of the final events of World War One. First, the Allies had to reconstitute an Eastern Front against the Central Powers. Alter the Armistice, the Allies had to frustrate post-war German ambitions, deal with the new nation states that had emerged on the periphery of Russia and prevent the spread of a virulent new revolutionary doctrine, Bolshevism. In practical terms, halting Bolshevism also meant supporting the White Russians. Most of the Allied troops looked forward to going home and returning to their natural lives. A few embraced the new adventures and became ardent supporters of the Whites. For Western home governments, however, intervention came too soon after World War One to be enticing and the potential threat of communism seemed to distant to be of immediate concern. Most political constituents wanted to bring the troops home and pressured their governments to do so.
A second snag boat was converted into the Essex. Although she was as large as the Benton, she carried only 5 guns, and was even slower. She was an unlucky ship, always hard hit, in trouble of some sort, missing the big opportunities, somewhat like the Saratoga in the Second World War.
Measured against the scale of what would become the Second World War, the Spanish the Nationalist war effort possible. Franco was under strong pressure from Germany to make repayments swiftly during the Second World War in the form of exports of food and ores, and also by funding the Spanish Blue Division, which fought alongside the Germans on the Eastern Front. Debts to Italy were renegotiated downwards in May 1940, and payments of the reduced amount then continued until the 1960s. If Republicans and International Brigaders were premature anti-fascists, then the breakdown of the alliance of the United States and Britain with the Soviet Union after the Second World War made Franco into a premature Cold War warrior. He survived the Second World War and the eventual defeat of his Nazi and Fascist backers. He also survived the West's displeasure at the continuing existence of his dictatorship in the years immediately after 1945. Briefly, western ambassadors were withdrawn from Madrid....
Lenin and the Bolsheviks saw the events in Russia as the beginning of an international civil war of workers against capitalists. The prospects seemed especially bright following the end of World War I (November 11, 1918). The war had shattered the state structures of eastern and central Europe and left Europe exhausted, economically crippled, and in political turmoil. Civil wars in areas of the former Russian state that had declared independence, such as Finland, reinforced the notion of widespread civil wars on the path to universal proletarian revolution. The Bolshevik vision of international civil war found expression in the formation of the Communist International, or Comintern, whose founding manifesto (March 1919) declared that The imperialist war World War I , which used to oppose a nation to a nation, is being superseded, and has been partly superseded by, civil war, which opposes one class to another. 8
Three White generals were instrumental in organizing the first resistance that led to civil war in the aftermath of the Bolshevik Revolution l.avr KorniJov, Mikhail Alexiev and Anton Denikin. Kornilov, the son of a Cossack, had been born in Siberia in 1870, A man of reckless courage and almost magical charisma, he had been the first Russian general to escape from an enemy prisoner-of-war camp in World War One. By 31 July 1917, he had risen to the position of supreme commander-in-chief under Kerensky. In August, in an attempt to restore order at the front and continue the war against the Central Powers, Kornilov attempted to overturn the Provisional Government and failed.
Up to the beginning of the Second Republic, Spanish society seemed to have managed to avoid the problems and troubles that had beset most European countries since 1914. Spain had not taken part in the First World War, and therefore had not undergone the upheaval that this war had caused, with the fall of empires and their subjects, the demobbing of millions of ex-combatants and massive debt caused by the vast spending on the war effort. But it did share the division and tension that accompanied the process of modernisation between those who feared Bolshevism and the various manifestations of socialism, lovers of order and authority, and those who dreamed of this new, egalitarian world that would arise from the class struggle.
During World War II the five divisions of Gen Stilwell's X-Force (later, the NCAC), and some of the Yunnan-based Y-Force. were raised to a quality largely unknown among the rest of the Chinese armies. Eroded by casualties - particularly among the trained pre-1937 officer corps -and by poverty of resources, and denied the modern equipment provided by the Allies for the Burma campaigns, most of these formations were under strength, badly fed, badly cared for. badly clothed and equipped, and badly led. with a combat value comparable to that of the marauding peasant levies of an earlier century. Historically, China's brutal military culture had given the peasant soldier no reward for victory beyond the opportunity to pillage, and no real emotional stake in any cause beyond his own immediate unit. Caution and cunning were admired self-respect did not depend upon initiative and dash in the attack or endurance in defence. Unless success came quickly they tended to fall back on the other...
On the left flank, Mai-Maevsky, a former commander of the 1st Guard Corps in World War One, conducted one of the most skilful operations in military history. During these months the 6,000 troops of General A. Kutepov's 1st Corps, consisting of the elite Alexiev, Markov, Drozdovsky and Kornilov Shock Divisions, and attached cavalry, held then defeated 30,000 of the enemy. opposite Lieutenant General Anton Ivanovich Denikin Inspects the Russian Tank Corps In summer 1919 as commander of the Armed Forces of South Russia. Denikin, a highly competent officer who had risen through the ranks due to merit and hard work was a political moderate. He had established a record for bravery under fine in the Russo-Japanese War and World War One and had among his medals the extremely rare St George Cross with Swords and Diamonds. Experience In World War One included command of the famous Iran Division' and the position of chief of staff to the supreme commander in 1917. (Photo, Ullstein Blld)
The end of the Whites meant the Reds were able to round out their borders at the expense of their neighbours. In the west, they accepted the loss of Finland, Poland and the Baltic states. In 1920, they signed treaties with Estonia in February, with Lithuania in July, Latvia in August and Finland in October. A treaty with Poland followed in March 1921. I hese losses were temporary, however. From 1939 to 1945, Poland and the Baltic states were 'returned to the fold'. After the conclusion of World War Two In 1945, Red hegemony extended into when the Turkish tribes maintained affiliations, and even to those espousing the formation of a single pan-Islamic state. Former 'Young Turk' head of stale Fnver Pasha, in exile after World War One, joined the Basmachis in 1921 and died in August of the following year while leading a cavalry charge against the Reds. The Red Army broke the back of the rebels in 1922, although resistance continued until 1934 when the last of the Basmachis were captured.
Many foreign women were swept up in the events inside Russia, either by circumstance or by choice. British subject Doreen Stanford lived in Siberia from 1916 to 1920 while her father worked as a mining engineer south of Krasnoyarsk in an area frequented by the Red partisan leader Shchetinkin. Her memoirs portray the hardships experienced by the people in the rural areas touched by civil war. Katia Swan, with her husband Alfred, both members of the American Red Cross, spent 1918-21 working among needy and orphaned children who had been evacuated to the Urals and Western Siberia. Swedish nurse Elsa Brandstrom coordinated international relief agencies caring for and helping to repatriate the hundreds of thousands of prisoners of war left in Russia and Siberia after the end of World War One. These are notable examples, but only a few among many. The young Kuban Cossack Marina Yuri ova was one example of a woman soldier who served in World War One then continued fighting in the Russian...
To these ends, the French landed troops at Odessa on 18 December 1918 and Sevastopol on 25 December. General Philippe d'Anselme arrived to assume overall command on 11 January 1919, The Greeks also decided to intervene with France, having been one of the Allies In World War Cine. Greece sought to protect a considerable ethnic Greek population in the southern Ukraine as well as gain a larger voice in the post-war political arena. Consequently, the Greeks began landing their troops at Odessa on 20 January. Turkish attacks and superior numbers overcame the local contingents and the British themselves were forced to evacuate by sea on the 14th. Fortunes turned, however, when on 30 October 1918, the Ottoman Empire signed an armistice ending Turkish participation in World War One. One of the clauses freed Baku from Ottoman control and allowed the establishment of the British 14th Division in that city.
The US Army during the Civil War was the largest the country had raised in its brief history and it would remain the largest ever raised until World War One. In all, 2,772,408 men served in some branch of the US Army during the Civil War of these, 93,441 were blacks who served in combat units of US Colored Troops. Not all returned 199,045 deserted (many to re-enlist under a different name for the bounty) 183,287 died of disease 61,362 were killed in action, and 34,773 died later of wounds 6,749 were posted as missing in action 306 died of accidents, e.g. falling from trains and 267 were executed for crimes such as desertion or murder.
Even then, their displacement saw no end. At the conclusion of World War Two, the Red Army advanced into Manchuria, causing the Whites to evacuate Harbin. The same fate awaited the community at Shanghai during the Chinese communist takeover in 1948. The author's father, serving in the US Navy during the Chinese Civil War, befriended one White gentleman reduced to playing the piano in a hotel bar.
The Left SRs also found themselves in opposition to the Bolsheviks after Lenin and Trotsky blessed the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk in March 1918 to conclude Russia's participation in World War One, a treaty that dismembered large portions of Russia and imposed a punitive peace. Thereafter, many Left SRs decided to cooperate with the Allies and reform an Eastern Front against the Central Powers. Moreover, the Bolsheviks were ensconced in Moscow, Petrograd and central Russia, where the many arms factories and stores of weapons that had supported the country's campaigns in World War One lay. Additionally, central Russia was comparatively rich in railways. These facts allowed the Bolsheviks to equip their military forces and deploy them where needed.
4 The last monitors built for the US Navy were the four ships of the Arkansas Class. Commissioned in 1902-03. too late to participate in the Spanish-American War. ships of this class served as submarine tenders during World War . Their low freeboard proved an asset in that assignment. Armament was two 12in breech-loading rifles and several 4in and 6pdr guns. Armour turret. 10 inches side, eight inches. Displacement 3225 tons. Speed 12kts. The ships in this class were Arkansas (BM-7) renamed Ozark in 1909 Connecticut (BM-8) renamed Nevada in 1901. Tonopah in 1909 Florida (BM-9) renamed Tallahassee in 1908 and Wyoming (BM-10) renamed Cheyenne in 1909.
Lkirn in 1895.Generalmajor Hugo Spcrrlc (code named Sander in Spain) served Willi the German Flying Service during Ihc Firsl World War. lie was appointed tirst commander of llie Legion Condor but proved somewhat of an abrasive character. Alter he returned to Germany in October 1937. he assumed command of Lul'twafTcngnjppcn-kommando .i (later Luftfloilc ,i). In August 1944, at the age of 59. he was transferred to the reserve. lkirn in 1895.Generalmajor Hugo Spcrrlc (code named Sander in Spain) served Willi the German Flying Service during Ihc Firsl World War. lie was appointed tirst commander of llie Legion Condor but proved somewhat of an abrasive character. Alter he returned to Germany in October 1937. he assumed command of Lul'twafTcngnjppcn-kommando .i (later Luftfloilc ,i). In August 1944, at the age of 59. he was transferred to the reserve.
Japanese and Allied officers in eastern Siberia. The back has handwriting in German 'American and Japanese officers, our guard troops in Krasnaya Retchka'. Krasnaya Retchka was a prisoner-of-war camp incarcerating 2,000 Germans captured in World War One, 1,500 of them officers. Company E, of the American 27th Infantry Regiment, took control of the Camp's bnck garrison buildings in November 1918 and brought in badly-needed medical and food supplies.The commander of Company E was Captain Ed Larkins, who is probably the captain seated in the centre. Several hundred thousand German and Austrian prisoners were still in Russia awaiting repatriation to their homelands during the Russian Civil War (Bullock collection)
Heavily influenced by the North's greater interest in Zouave and Chasseur uniforms, many of these units wore a variety of dress. This variety, together with the creation of specialist units, like Colonel Hiram Berdan's green-clad sharpshooters, meant Union uniforms matched the range of dress found in the Confederacy. The Union Army eventually comprised some 2,772,408 men and was the largest force raised in the country until the United States mobilised its forces for World War One. In many ways, American Civil War uniforms represent a transition period between the gaudy uniforms of the Napoleonic era and the functional dress of the First World War.
The experience gained by German pilots in Spain was to prove invaluable when the Second World War broke out. For the fighter units, perhaps the most important operational lesson learned was the improvement of tactics. Like most other air forces they began the war in Spain by flying in tight parade ground groups of three, but by the end they had adopted a looser more manoeuvrable formation of four, known as the Schv arm. In addition to gaining operational experience, many pilots brought back with them their unit or personal emblems, applying these to their Luftwaffe Bf 109s.
In the wake of World War I, most European armies neglected further tank development. An ample supply of tanks was still on hand from the war, and the meager defense budgets of the 1920s did not encourage expensive new programs. Germany was forbidden tanks under the Versailles Treaty and the Soviet Union was still licking its wounds after a debilitating civil war. Tank development began to accelerate in the early 1930s. The World War I tanks had been mechanically arthritic even in their prime, and by the 1930s were mostly worn out. Britain had been at the forefront of tank development in World War I, and was the most influential tank manufacturing country in the early 1930s. This was due not only to its weapons firms such as Vickers, but also to its visionary military thinkers such as J. F. C. Fuller, who wrote extensively on the nature of future war and the equipment needs of modern armies. One of the most influential developments in Britain was the Carden-Loyd tankette. This was a...
The Kasr el-Harit shield.This shield found in Egypt just before the Second World War was originally identified as Gallic but is most probably Roman. Made of three layers of plywood, it is remarkably similar to the Roman shield described by the Greek historian Polybius in the late 2nd century BC. (Nick Sekunda) The Kasr el-Harit shield.This shield found in Egypt just before the Second World War was originally identified as Gallic but is most probably Roman. Made of three layers of plywood, it is remarkably similar to the Roman shield described by the Greek historian Polybius in the late 2nd century BC. (Nick Sekunda)
Born in the USA on Friday 4 March 1898, Dalton grew up at 8 Upper St Columbus Road, Drumcondra, a solidly middle-class Catholic suburb of Dublin, and was educated by the Christian Brothers at their school in North Richmond Street. The O'Connell School still survives and has an extensive museum commemorating its old boys however, neither Dalton nor Brendan Finucane - the youngest wing commander in the RAF during World War 11 - receives a mention in it, t was whilst serving with the 9th 'Dubs' that Dalton befriended an old acquaintance of his father, Lieutenant Tom Kettle MP, the 36-year-old Nationalist MP for East Tyrone and Professor of Economics at University College Dublin. It was Kettle who had famously declared that Irishmen should fight 'not for England, but for small nations', a sentiment that Dalton seemed to fully endorse. Kettle hoped that, 'with the wisdom which is sown in tears and blood, this tragedy of Europe World War l may be and must be the prologue to the two...
Dalton's experience in World War I had taught him that 'the use of these guns would have a very demoralizing effect upon a garrison unused to artillery fire'. His gunners lacked training and the meagre Supply of shrapnel shells from the British made him conclude erroneously that 'as a destructive agent against the Tour Courts building the guns would he quite insignificant'. He also saw the guns as a morale booster for his own men and dreaded running out of ammunition.
These French Zouaves on exercise around III.f wear uniforms thai wouldn't have been mil j place in the Crimean War. French Zouaves wore their traditional uniforms during the first months of World War , hut sustained such heavy casualties that they were ordered to wear less conspicuous dress. (Author's collection) These French Zouaves on exercise around III.f wear uniforms thai wouldn't have been mil j place in the Crimean War. French Zouaves wore their traditional uniforms during the first months of World War , hut sustained such heavy casualties that they were ordered to wear less conspicuous dress. (Author's collection)
Most White armored trains were painted dark olive, dark green, or gray, although instances of khaki and even black are not unknown. Kalmykov's train, the Kalmykovets, had one camouflaged command wagon as did at least one other photographed White train in the Trans-Caspian region (colors of both are unknown, but were possibly green and khaki). The majority of Russian armored cars had been painted dark olive during World War I, but during the Civil War dark green and gray also appeared. Pragmatically, White units tended to use stocks of paint on hand thus, naval units
Base colors were similar to those used in World War 1 however, patterns of camouflage emerged in the second half of the ciril war. Re vol utio nan-slogans appeared occasionally on tanks, armored cars and armored trains, vetted for political correctness by the attached commissar. Flags of the armored units were normally rectangular, with a base color of red. surmounted by white letters or designs and sometimes yellow-gold, but the more elaborate ones could include many colors.
ADAM HOOK studied graphic design, and began his work as an illustrator in 1983. He specializes in detailed historical reconstructions, and has illustrated many Osprey titles including subjects as diverse as World War I, medieval castles, the Aztecs, the Greeks, the American Civil War and the American Revolution. His work features in exhibitions and publications throughout the world.
Warfare between the Nationalists and the Communists continued even when the Japanese began their incursions into Chinese territory. The Nationalists were accused of being more concerned with defeating the Communists than fighting the Japanese, although some Nationalist officers were unhappy with this tactic. This unhappiness with Chiang's policy of attacking the Communists rather than facing up to the invading Japanese came to a head in the famous 'Shansi' incident of 1936. Chiang was visiting some of his soldiers in Shansi province because they had refused to attack the Communists, when he was kidnapped by the 'Young marshal' Chiang Hsi-yuang. Chiang was forced to agree to form a united front with the Communists to fight the Japanese. This uneasy alliance held until 1941, when the Nationalists attacked a Communist unit, the New 4th Army, which was under Nationalist command. After this incident any pretence of co-operation ended, and for the next few years neither side made any real...
Civil War than possibly World War One and Two. Not only have many modern historians written about the American Civil War, but the era spawned numerous diaries and recollections of the conflict, as well as a steady stream of regimental histories in the years following the war. The following is a list of some leading American Civil War book suppliers.
As the Civil War drew to a close, a new padded grey cotton uniform was in service, similar to the old winter issue uniform but smarter in appearance. The hat had ear flaps as in the old uniform but without the fur lining and with cutouts for the ears so the ears were protected when the flaps were worn down. US Ml steel helmets were also worn during the Civil War, particularly by the American-trained divisions that had been set up in India during World War II, and were airlifted back to China by the Americans at the end of the war. The Americans were supplying more and
Been natives of the Zouaoua tribe mixed with some French settlers, who had served with the French Army during France's North African campaigns in the 1830s. Their native North African dress baggy trousers, short jacket and fez became the basis of the famous Zouave uniform that remained virtually unchanged for more than 50 years at the beginning of the First World War Frcnch Zouaves marched to the front in uniforms little different to those worn in the Crimea. The French originally raised two battalions of native Zouaves but by the time of the Crimean War, three Zouave regiments of the line had been created entirely from Frenchmen, and a regiment of Imperial Guard Zouaves was raised in 1855. The appeal of being a Zouave was so great that non-commissioned officers often gave up their stripes to serve as privates in these regiments. The Zouaves saw hard service in the Crimea, where they had a great affinity with the wild
During the years of the Spanish Civil War, L'Osservatore Romano was directed by a layman, the Count Dalla Torre, whose anti-fascist sentiments were in tune with those of Pius XI. In his memoirs he insists that it was he who made the decision not to publish in his paper the Collective Letter of the Spanish bishops 'I managed to not do it, and I received no orders to the contrary I was left free'.2 Nonetheless, during a confrontation with the Fascist censorship, the Papal Secretary of State, Cardinal Maglione, said in a note to the Italian ambassador to the Vatican in order to justify the exemption from State censorship of L'Osservatore romano, 'It is printed in Italian, but it is the organ of the Holy See and cannot be confused with the Italian dailies Everywhere, and especially abroad, it is obvious that L'Osservatore Romano is truly the daily newspaper of the Holy See'.3 The section devoted to opinions and commentaries under the heading Acta diurnia (a species of editorial on page 1)...
In more strictly military terms, the Civil War occupies a very interesting position in the history of war. At one extreme, cavalry charges still sometimes proved effective, as in the Nationalist attack north of Teruel in February 1938. On the other, the use of air power, and the vital importance of supremacy in the air, pointed directly to the technology of the Second World War. One of the reasons that the Civil War lasted as long as it did is that air superiority oscillated between the two sides several times. Dominance in the air, such as the Nationalists enjoyed in the northern campaigns of 1937, gave an overwhelming advantage, but neither side enjoyed it all the time, or in all parts of the country simultaneously. The nearly 3,000 planes engaged in the Spanish Civil War set a quite new pattern, especially in the context of Europe in 1936, when the Nazis were just beginning to implement their rearmament programme seriously, and Britain, still before rearmament, could boast only...
Engineers, Lieutenant-Colonel William McRee and Elliot, Swift and Elliot later resigned in protest at the government hiring Bernard, a foreign national). This Bernard Board of four experts was charged with producing a fortification plan for the entire U.S. coastline, the selection of suitable sites, and the development of plans for the structures. For the first time, a competent professional body was able to supervise all aspects of coastal fortifications, and in various forms this group would continue to perform these functions until after World War II. Members of the board spent two years touring the entire Atlantic seaboard, as well as the newly acquired coastal regions sites in the Gulf of Mexico, and they presented their findings to the Secretary of War in February 1821.
To a much greater extent than the United States Navy Department, the Confederate counterpart was forced to build and manage industrial facilities of all kinds in order to get its work done at all. Before the end of the war, Mallory ruled an enormous industrial complex of ordnance factories, forges, powder plants, and even mines and smelters. Building this system in a predominantly agricultural country, in the face of Northern attacks literally from all sides, was a brilliant feat. It would be necessary to turn to the accomplishments of Germany in the Second World War to find a comparable performance under fire. Strategically, the Confederate Navy was in much the same position in which the German Navy found itself in the Second World War. Not surprisingly, its reactions were very much the same, allowing for the lower level of technology, of course. To carry the parallel further, its over-all position in the war effort, both in relation to the Army and to the central government, was...
The Spanish Civil War began with a military coup. There was a long history of military intervention in Spain's political life. But the coup of 17-18 July 1936 was an old instrument being used for a new purpose. It aimed to halt the mass political democracy set in train by the effects of the First World War and the Russian Revolution, and accelerated by the ensuing social, economic, and cultural changes of the 1920s and 1930s. In this sense, the military rising against Spain's democratic Second Republic was the equivalent of the fascist takeovers that followed the coming to power of Mussolini in Italy (1922) and Hitler in Germany (1933) and which were also designed to control similar manifestations of social, political, and cultural change. the periodic slave revolts of the rural poor were easily repressed by the police - no less after the First World War than in earlier periods. Nevertheless, in urban Spain the First World War was, as elsewhere in Europe, the crucial detonator of...
When the survivors turned back in sullen retreat, they suffered as dreadfully as on the way in. Among the Southern officers mangled was Colonel Waller Tazewell Patton, one of six brothers in the army and a great-uncle of the General Patton famous during the Second World War. The Colonel had grasped a cousin's hand, said 'it is our turn next,' and leaped over the stone wall at the attack's high-water mark, then went down with his lower jaw shot away. As he lay dying in a Federal hospital, unable to talk, 'Taz' scribbled a note to his mother 'my only regret is that there are no more brothers left to defend our country.'
The Czech revolt also was a key event leading to Allied intervention in the Russian civil war. It overcame President Woodrow Wilson's reluctance to sanction the British and French desire to intervene militarily. Soon thereafter, small contingents of American, British, French, and Japanese troops landed at the far northern, eastern, and southern edges of the Russian empire, where they aided anti-Bolshevik forces. Their main concern was the war with Germany. They hoped that a victory of the anti-Soviet forces would compel Germany to keep more troops in the east and slow their transfer to the western front, and also deny Germany access to the desperately needed raw materials and foodstuffs of Russia. After the end of World War I
Finally, after 47 days the siege came to an end. Pemberton decided he must surrender on 4 July 1863. Grant and Pemberton had served in the same division during part of the Mexican War and the two men greeted one another as old acquaintances. When Pemberton asked for terms, Grant responded that 'the useless effusion of blood you propose stopping by this course can be ended at any time you may choose, by the unconditional surrender of the city and the garrison.' As the fatigued and disheartened Southern soldiers marched out of the city, the Federals quietly lowered the Confederate flag and raised the Stars and Stripes in its place. River vessels blew their whistles and the Union bands struck up the 'Battle Cry of Freedom.' From a distance residents watched with tears in their eyes as the jubilant Yankees went wild. Grant recalled years after the war that the capture of Vicksburg 'gave new spirit to the loyal people of the North.' Embittered Vicksburg residents did not celebrate the 4th...
William Doyle FREE WILL Thomas Pink Freud Anthony Storr GaLiLeo Stillman Drake Gandhi Bhikhu Parekh GLOBALIZATION Manfred Steger GLOBAL WARMING Mark Maslin HEGEL Peter Singer HEIDEGGER Michael Inwood HIEROGLYPHS Penelope Wilson HINDUISM Kim Knott HISTORY John H. Arnold HOBBES Richard Tuck HUME A. J. Ayer IDEOLOGY Michael Freeden Indian PhiLosophy Bill McGuire EXISTENTIALISM Thomas Flynn FEMINISM Margaret Walters THE FIRST WORLD WAR
The fighting died down following the ABiH assault on Vares, except around Vitez, as both sides sought to conserve their strength, survive the winter, and prepare for renewed fighting in the spring of 1994. Military historian Edgar O'Ballance noted that December, 1993, was a month of gloom and despondency in Bosnia, as factional leaders rigidly refused to come to any common agreement on its future . . . hope was at a low ebb and despair was high . . . and as military operations reached a stalemate sections of defensive trenches on a First-World-War pattern began to appear, symbolic of determination to prevent the enemy from seizing another foot of terrain. 31
Today, Arlington National Cemetery is the most famous cemetery in the United States. More than 175,000 American soldiers, including troops from every major war in which the United States has fought, are buried within its borders. Arlington is also the site of the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, which honors American servicemen who died in World War I (1914-18), World War II (1939-45), the Korean War (1950-53), and the Vietnam War (1955-75). Many famous Americans who devoted their lives to public service are buried at Arlington as well, including President John F. Kennedy (1917-1963) and his brother Robert Kennedy (1925-1968).
During the winter months of 1936-7, Italy landed 85-90,000 infantry in Spain, while Germany took over various specialised technical functions in the rebel army motor transport, tanks and antitank guns, anti-aircraft guns, coastal batteries, and heavy artillery. On February 9, 1937, the Italians captured Malaga . . . The Spanish War is for the dictatorships in many respects a dress rehearsal for the world war for which it is preparing the way.
So much for the British Foreign Secretary's own 'success' in trying to buttress the non-intervention policy. More broadly, how successful was non-intervention as pursued by Britain and France In Britain, the policy could claim a wide basis of support. For at least a year, national government and Labour Party leaders maintained a bipartisan policy of non-intervention. In contrasting ways, two prominent Labour figures illustrate this position Hugh Dalton argued not only that it took two sides to make a war - the Republic itself was not blameless - but that Britain's own rearmament programme would be blown off course by an 'arms to Spain' policy while Ernest Bevin (later one of the founders of NATO as a deterrent to war) forcefully warned of world war should military non-intervention be thrown overboard.16 Labour pro-interventionists could not undermine this implacably noninterventionist line, which was shared by right-wing leaders of the Trades Union Council.
Across the Russian state in the Caucasus Mountains region, the demand for national political autonomy was weaker and a clear nationalist movement developed somewhat more slowly, although ethnic-nationality identity was quite strong. The situation differed among the three major populations. Armenians, an ancient and distinct Christian people, were spread across the Russian, Turkish, and Persian borders, and had been profoundly affected by the massive massacres of Armenians in Turkey before and during World War I. Their large merchant class, dispersed among the cities of the area, also gave Armenian identity a peculiar twist. The result was the emergence of a dominant political movement that stressed cultural-national identity and ethnic survival above all else, with only mild socialist tendencies. Most important, their survival depended on Russian protection from the Turks, and so autonomy sentiments were muted throughout 1917, emerging only with the collapse of Russian state authority...
Amid the wrenching catastrophes of 20th-century European history, the Spanish Civil War continues today to exert a particular fascination. Certainly this force of attraction cannot be explained in terms of the geographical or human scale of the conflict or the technological horrors it witnessed. For the Spanish strife is dwarfed by other conflicts - in terms of material destruction and human tragedy. This is true even if we include in our calculations the continuing horror of mass killing and incarceration that was the 'post-war' in 1940s Spain. But our enduring engagement with the Spanish Civil War is undeniable. It has generated over fifteen thousand books - a textual epitaph that puts it on a par with the Second World War. refugees produced by the conflict. There had been mass population displacements during the First World War, but none had had Spain's visibility. The Civil War made a deep impression on those watching from other European countries. For Spaniards themselves, the...
very ambitious . . . for its day, pressing the state of the art in a number of areas. As with the monitors, intense wartime urgency caused orders to outrun testing the government ordered 1,600 B-29s before the first one lifted off the ground. Just as monitor production was spread among several shipyards, B-29 production was parceled out to several contractors, with the same goal of greater and quicker production and similar resulting complications. In the World War II program, the Army Air Force froze the bomber's design, introducing changes very gradually so as not to upset production. Newly manufactured bombers flew first to modification sites, where each was brought up to the latest configuration.45 While bombers built on an assembly line may be considered mass production, another example involved specialty items. The U.S. Navy's World War II submarines were built in identifiable classes, like the Civil War monitors, but differed in that the much larger number of ships involved...
The Spanish-American War ( which conceivably could have been a German-American or even a Japanese-American War) found the U.S. Navy equipped with an at least adequate force of seagoing battleships and cruisers, which in turn gave way to the largest and finest destroyer force in the world (and the convoy system and the North Sea mining operation) by the end of the First World War. The Second World War required aircraft carriers and landing craft, and in the same tradition they were built and used. Of the nuclear submarines and how they came to be built and on station exactly when they were needed, little need be said.
Distinctions between life at the front and life behind the lines were often blurred. Nowhere was safe. Both in large cities like Madrid and Barcelona, and small country towns like Guernica and Durango, Nationalist planes brought death and desolation in a way that foreshadowed the much larger-scale bombings of the Second World War. It is not surprising that when Pablo Picasso was asked to paint a picture for the Second Republic's stand at the International Exhibition in Paris in the summer of 1937, he chose to portray the human tragedy of Guernica, destroyed in April 1937 by the Condor Legion, rather than military confrontation in battle. Guernica depicted the shattered lives and bodies of women, children, men at work and animals. This was the new reality of war. Civilians were also strafed from the air as they tried to move to safety. It was as dangerous to flee east from Malaga in February 1937 or west from Vizcaya in June, as it was to be a conscript at the front. Taking shelter in...
Conflicts from the American Civil War. Yet the Civil War proved more prophetic of the First World War than either of those clashes between European powers. Analysts failed to grasp the enhanced power of the defensive and the value of good field works. They also missed valuable lessons from cavalry serving as mounted infantry, a combination of mobility and firepower that proved so decisive in the Second World War. Lieutenant-Ceneral Philip Sheridan, the hard-charging general who had arrested a corps commander for arriving with his men 12 hours late, observed the Franco-Prussian War from the Prussian side. In a letter to Grant in 1870, he thought that the battles were actually not that distinct from the Civil War, and 'that difference is to the credit of our own country.' Sheridan believed, 'There is nothing to be learned here professionally, but it is a satisfaction to learn that such is the case.' He insisted that Europeans could benefit from studying Americans' more effective use of...
Before the red dawn of the Bolshevik October Revolution of 1917. only one other nation. Great Britain, possessed more armored cars than did Russia. The Russian Ministry of Defense had established its first armored car formation, the 1st Armored Automobile Company, on 19 August 1914, shortly after the outbreak of World War 1. By the end of summer 1917, the Russians had produced at least 201 armored cars and had imported over 34(i cars or chassis, mostly f rom Britain, France, the United States and Italy. Armored cars in the While armies included the Austin first, second and third series, each with Russian modifications made during World War I (described below), and several Russian makes that included Russo-Balt (Tell made in 1914, three 7.02mm Maxim machine guns) Jeffrey-Poplavko (31 made in 1916, two 7.62mm machine guns) Filiatov (Ten made in 1916 with two 7.62mm machine guns, 20 with only one) 76mm gun, three 7.62mm Maxim machine guns) Packard (31 made in 1916, one auto 37mm gun)...
The 304-year reign of the Romanov dynasty came to an end on 15 March 1917 (Gregorian calendar, new-style date). The Russian 'February Revolution' had begun in earnest on 8 March, much as the French Revolution of 1789 had, as a direct result of women marching in search of bread. For the first time in imperial history, military forces sent to quell the ever-widening circle of discontented citizens of Petrograd refused to fire and actually joined the demonstrators. The hard winter of 1917 had exacerbated the food and fuel shortages and had compounded the widespread discontent that had reached endemic proportions over Russia's iil-fated participation in World War One.
Also costly was the determination of the Whites to honour Russia's commitment to the Allies in World War One, a resolve that would last until Armistice Day, 11 November 1918. Given Russia's general exhaustion, continuing the war was exceedingly unpopular with the general population. Foreign observers noted the large number of young soldiers in the White armies. The Whites and their Cossack allies hesitated to conscript classes of soldiers that had been infected by extreme socialism in World War One, the so-called frontoviki. They turned instead to young men, even boys, from Russia's many military schools, the cadets and junkers, who fought gallantly for their cause. Most White units also had a disproportionate number of officers and there were cases of senior officers serving in the ranks as privates. Many battalions had an 'officer's company' which formed an elite on the battlefield and could supply critical
Spain had been in the backwater of European military developments for more than a century. It had a dozen Renault FT light tanks and six of the heavier Schneider CA1 tanks from France in the years after World War I. The Renault FTs were dispatched to Morocco in 1921 to support the Spanish Foreign Legion (Tercio de Extranjeros) in its fight against the Rif rebellion. A young officer of the 1st Batall n (1a Bandera) of the legion, Major Francisco Franco, remarked, Armored cars and tanks are well suited for this war. We shall see if time proves me right. In fact, the first tank action on March 17, 1922, was discouraging. The tanks advanced in front of the infantry due to their higher speed, but a number proved useless in combat when their machine guns jammed. Two tanks broke down and were left behind, only to be blown up by the Rif with dynamite. This combat debut had several clear lessons. Tanks were not miracle weapons, even when used against poorly armed rebels. Tanks could not hold...
Eagle symbols were also an important feature on officers' and NCOs' sword belt plates. In 1851 a new pattern for these plates was adopted that remained virtually unchanged until World War Two. Regulations stated that the belt plates should be 'Gilt, rectangular, two inches wide with a raised rim, a silver wreath of laurel encircling the Arms of the United
(UHA), which attained a strength of 70,000 in June 1919, included the elite 1st Brigade of the Ukrainian Sich Rifles which had served in the Austro-Hungarian Army in World War One in the hope of liberating their country from imperial liussia. After hard-fought battles during the first half of 1919, Poland succeeded in defeating the UHA in July. The army then retreated to join the Ukrainian National Republic in the east.
The blue clad infantryman was the mainstay of Union Forces from 1861-1865.1 lis natural successors were the Doughboys of World War I, the GIs of World War 2 and the Grunts who fought in Vietnam. Orders issued on March 13, 1861, prescribed that the Rill dress coat for infantrymen should be a dark blue single breasted frock coat made without pleats with a skirt extending one half the distance from the top of the hip to the bend of the knee. The coats were to have nine buttons placed at equal distances on the chest and a stand up collar which shouldn't be too high and restrict a soldier's neck movement. In practice it seems that many collars proved to be uncomfortable and local tailors were often contracted to lower them.
The British took the lead in intervening in the Baltic from 1918 to 1920 due to the geographic proximity of these countries and the ready availability of the Royal Navy. Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania had been quick to seek independence from Russia in 1917. Latvia declared independence on 12 January 1918, followed by Lithuania on 16 February and Estonia on 24 February. Actual independence was problematical, however. The Germans had occupied Lithuania in 1915 and had taken over Estonia and Latvia in February 1918. The ensuing Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, signed by the Bolsheviks and the Central Powers on 3 March 1918, theoretically ended World War One on the Eastern Front, Unfortunately for the aspirations of the Baltic states, the Germans remained in control until the Armistice ending World War One itself on 11 November 1918.
Although the Anglo-Irish War and the Irish Civil War featured regularly in the British press and took up a significant amount of Government time and effort it would be wrong to assume that Ireland was the most important item on the British agenda. In the wake of World War I the British Empire had to deal with problems ranging from suppressing an insurgency in Iraq to readjusting to peace. There can be little doubt that the British would have preferred that the Home Rule Bill had not been passed and that the Troubles that followed had not taken place. Conservative Party sympathy for the Ulster Unionists ensured that Britain failed to deal effectively with the threat of Unionist violence manifested in the UVT and arguably the crisis was only averted by the advent of World War I.
Russia possessed 37,000 miles (60,000km) of railway track, the majority being five-loot gauge, at the end of 1917. The Russian Army had used several armored trains in World War I. but these fell to the Reds, Ukrainians and Central Powers during the Bolshevik Revolution. The Whites on all fronts began with nothing. These armaments dated from World War I. which overlapped the Russian Civil War in 1918. Standard Russian arms included the Putilov 76.2mm field gun (Models 1900, 1902, 1913), the 76.2mm mountain gun (Models 1904, 1909), the 6-in. howitzer and the 7.62mm Maxim machine gun.
The McClellan saddle became the Union cavalry's most widely used saddle during the Civil War and was still being issued to mounted troops in the American army as late as World War 2. The saddle was named after General George B. McClellan. McClellan saddles were extremely serviceable and were largely based on the saddles McClellan had seen being used
The insurgent army's organization consisted of three battalions to a regiment, three regiments to a brigade and three brigades to a division. These units varied in size with no set number of men being allotted to a particular establishment. Commanders were elected or sometimes appointed by Makhno personally from his trusted clique. All primary commanders came from peasant or working-class stock, most having had experience as non-commissioned officers in World War One. Discipline was swift and harsh and included summary execution by pistol. of Belgian armoured cars - given to Russia in World War One-against Denikin in spring 1919.
DURING WORLD WAR II, China was an important partner in the fight against the Japanese Empire. Although often overlooked today as an ally of the United States and the British Empire, China had already been fighting Japanese armies on her own soil for four and a half years when the attack 011 Pearl Harbor opened hostilities between Japan and the Western Allies in December 1941. and thereafter this so-called Sino-Japanese War became absorbed into the wider conflict. It has been estimated that in the period 1937-45 some 14 million Chinese served in the armed forces, losing about 1.400.000 dead and 1.800.000 wounded. (Total Chinese civilian casualties are. of course, incalculable, but a figure of around 800.000 dead has been suggested.)
Unlike the Sherman tanks rolling off the Detroit assembly lines in World War II, Union ironclad cars and trains were not mass produced with systematic efficiency. They were built by different designers at different locations, and certainly varied in construction however, the armor consisting of railroad T-rails stacked one on top of another and fixed to a wooden casemate was probably the best and most common design. (A few of the naval vessels of the day were also armored with T-rails drilled and fastened to the wooden structure.) At the outbreak of hostilities the Union government armored a railroad battery with sheet iron and ran it on the Philadelphia, Wilmington, & Baltimore Railroad to protect work crews. The car was later given to Gen Haupt he had little use for it, referring to it as an elephant, although he considered bulletproof locomotive cabs indispensable.
Three other types were worn by Nationalist troops. The first was the 'plum blossom' model, which was based on the Japanese helmet of very similar design (see Plate B2)2. A second model had a pot-shaped skull with a brim that was slightly wider at the front, giving it the appearance of having a peak this type seems largely to have gone out of use by 1937, but probably survived in some units. Finally, a third model of distinctive Chinese design (see Plate A3), similar in shape to a flattened German 'coalscuttle' helmet, was seen in use from 1932 until 1937. This model was unique in shape, but may have been based on the US experimental Model 2A design which was later developed into the Ml of World War II fame.
Colonel Anatoly Pepelyaev, commander of the Middle Siberian Corps, 1918. A white-over-green oblique ribbon on the hat and a chevron of the same colours on the sleeve were the main insignia of the White Siberian Army. His decorations probably date from World War I, and are the Order of St George 4th Class and the Order of St Vladimir 4th Class with Swords and Bow.
Making the Republic a reality once more. Significantly the British did nothing to prevent it happening, so much had Britain's relationship with its Empire changed in the aftermath of World War II. 3. As a condition of the Anglo-Irish Treaty Britain retained the deep water ports of Uerehaven, Queenstown (Cobh) and Lough Swilly as sovereign bases. Their existence was one of the factors that made anti-Treaty Republicans oppose the settlement. The ports remained under British control until the 1938 Anfilo-Irish l ree Trade Agreement - many Irish supporters of neutrality believed that their return was vita in the years leading up to World War 11.
The political situation in Ukraine from 1917 to 1922 was complicated, to say the least. Towards the end of 1917 a group of nationalists in Kiev declared the Ukrainian Peoples' Republic. They were led by a Central Rada (council) led by Vladimir Vinnichenko, a writer, and Simon Petlyura, ajournalist. Bolshevik troops invaded in January 1918 and set up their own Soviet Ukrainian government. This was short-lived on 3 March 1918 the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk formally recognised a new Ukrainian state. The Soviets were replaced by German troops, who marched into Ukraine in force and appointed Pavel Skoropadsky as 'Hetman' (supreme chief) of Ukraine. With Germany's collapse at the end of World War I, the German grip on the Ukraine weakened. In December 1918 Skoropadsky escaped to Berlin disguised as a German officer. The nationalists again took control, with Petlyura as commander-in-chief and Vinnichenko as president of a 'Directoria' government. This lasted until September 1919 when the Ai med...
He wears a Russian version of the Adrian helmet with the Imperial eagle beaten out these must have found their way to China by a very roundabout route, as did much Warlord equipment. The armband he wears has the black Chinese character rWu' in the centre of a white disc on a dark green linen cloth. His submachine-gun is captured from his enemies in the Fengtien army, which had a large number in use in their units. There were a quite surprising number of submachine-guns in use in Warlord armies this one is a German MP18 20, which was a modification of the MP18 from World War I. B3 Warlord soldier 1916-28 new uniform for officers of the Manchukuo army - in Japanese khaki material. His cap has the new badge of the army, which is a five-coloured star with the same colours as the old Republican one but arranged in a different order. The order on his chest is the grand order of the orchid blossom, a newly issued award which was only received by Pu-Yi and the Emperor Hirohito. The...
Then General Koenig cut off two combat commands and a host of supporting troops from the rest of the Fifth F-C. With the lives of several thousand of her men hanging in the balance, Leyland felt she had few choices left. She authorized the arming of two weapons and delivered them via aerospace fighter on the 17th of June, utterly wiping out the Bell Cadre and a battalion of armor, plus a sizable contingent of Syrtis Fusiliers infantry. Stunned by Leyland's use of nuclear weapons, the Fusiliers backed off for the moment, allowing the Fifth F-C to reunite and continue their retreat.
For a discussion of the context of purificatory, genocidal, and retributive conflicts in 1920s, 1930s, and 1940s Europe, see Mark Mazower, Dark Continent Europe's Twentieth Century (Harmondsworth Penguin, 1998) J. Casanova, 'Civil Wars, Revolutions and Counterrevolutions in Finland, Spain and Greece (1918-1949) A Comparative Analysis', International Journal of Politics, Culture and Society, vol. 13, no. 3 (2000) and Istvan Deak, Jan T. Gross, and Tony Judt (eds), The Politics of Retribution in Europe World War II and its Aftermath (Princeton Princeton University Press, 2000).
Spain kept out of the First World War. Although neutrality brought economic prosperity, there also came inflation and internal conflict, including a general strike in 1917. In the same year, army officers, still blaming the politicians for the defeats of 1898, set up their own unions. On the far left, anarchism was growing fast. In the regions, there was serious unrest, notably Barcelona's 'Tragic Week' (1909), the 'Three Red Years' (Trienio Bolchevique) in Andaluc a (1918-20), and guerrilla warfare in Catalonia during 1919-23 when 700 people were murdered. Worker against capitalist, Catholic against atheist, anarcho-syndicalist against conservative, regionalist against centralist, landless labourer against landowner showed divisions deepening in Spain. There were also divisions within the divisions. Captains of industry resented the hold on political power of the reactionary landowners. Landless labourers, already brutally repressed by the paramilitary Civil Guard,
The Nationalists and Communists had unfinished business after World War II, and although attempts were made to settle their disputes peacefully, fighting soon broke out all over China. Chiang Kai-shek was determined to control all China, so he advanced into the Communist stronghold of Manchuria, and it was there that the decisive battles of the Civil War were fought. During the Sino-Japanese war the Nationalists had lost not only their best soldiers but, more importantly, their best officers. This lack of good officers
Allied intervention can only be understood against the backdrop ol World War One. The Bolshevik Revolution of November 1917 removed Russia as a partner of the Allies in the war. Understanding that the Central Powers could now transfer troops from the east to the west, the Allies sought to reconstitute the broken Eastern Front to tie down as many of the enemy as possible. Over the next several months they considered a wide range of partners, from Ukrainians, Serbs, Poles, Romanians, Czechs, to the new players now being called 'Whites' and even the Bolsheviks themselves.
Of course, we cannot lay the blame for the entire Civil War on that misguided leftenant from the Eighth FedCom RCT, just like that ancient Serbian assassin was not responsible for Terra's First World War. They were merely tools of fate, pawns in a grand game of chess that none of us can fully perceive.
The defeat of the urban Socialists in 1917 did not, however, mark the end of the attack on the Right Wing. Between 1918 and 1921, anarchist labourers from the south took part in a series of uprisings which, although crushed again by the army and civil guard, intensified social resentment in the rural south. The end of the First World War had also resulted in the revival of foreign trade competition and the consequent European recession also hit Spain. To counter this, the Catalonian industrialists in particular, introduced a series of wage cuts and lay offs which resulted in a spiralling of urban violence, particularly in Barcelona.
The Russians began building armored trains in 1915 and possessed seven by summer 1917. These served in World War I over the long Eastern Front as mobile artillery platforms. The armored train swiftly came into its own after the Bolshevik Revolution, in the aftermath of civil war. The need to cont rol vast distances in a mobile war with fluid fronts made armored trains vital to victory. Indeed, armored trains spearheaded advances or Covered
One factor that determined high casualty rates during the Civil War was the sheer number of men on the field. Nearly 39,000 soldiers were needed to defend 6 square miles (15 square kilometers) of ground. During World War I, that number had fallen to 4,000, and by the Persian Gulf War, it was fewer than a couple of dozen. Some Civil War battles involved more than 100,000 soldiers, or even twice that number, on a battlefield no bigger than a large
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