Get Paid to Write at Home
STUART REID, born in Aberdeen in 1954, has maintained a lifelong interest in military history alongside various occupations including - among others - librarian, research technician for a North Sea diving company, and sergeant sniper in the Royal Regiment of Fusiliers. His longstanding involvement in military re-enactment has broadened into work as a military advisor-cum-troop instructor for film companies. A prolific writer in recent years, he has contributed some half-dozen titles to Osprey's military series, and is also the author of Like Hungry Wolves, a definitive and highly praised analysis of the Culloden campaign.
Biographies of these commanders, as well as battle histories highlighting their movements, shape understandings of the war and its purposes. Pulitzer Prize and National Book Award-winning writer Bruce Catton, for example, typified this approach to the Civil War in his writings during the 1950s. ''Grant and Lee were in complete contrast, representing two diametrically opposed elements in American life. Grant was the modern man emerging beyond him, ready to come on the stage, was the great age of steel and machinery, of crowded cities and a restless burgeoning vitality'' (Catton in Kennedy, Kennedy, and Aaron 2008, 213). Lee could not have been more different, according to Catton. He ''might have ridden down from the old age of chivalry, lance in hand, silken banner fluttering over his head. Each man was the perfect champion of his causes, drawing both his strengths and his weaknesses from the people he led'' (Catton in Kennedy, Kennedy, and Aaron 2008, 213).
Ambrose Bierce was one of America's best-known writers of the nineteenth century. As a Union soldier during the Civil War, Bierce witnessed the violence and horror of war firsthand. After the war ended, he drew upon those wartime experiences to write a number of popular short stories and essays. In addition, he ranked as one of the country's most famous newspaper columnists during the 1880s and 1890s.
Within months of arriving in San Francisco, Bierce began writing for area newspapers. He soon became the editor for the city's News-Letter. But he became even better known for his essays and editorials on the issues and individuals shaping California at that time. His sarcastic writing style and willingness to criticize powerful politicians and businessmen soon made him the state's most controversial writer. In fact, people often referred to him as the best-hated and best-loved man in California.
By the 17th century the military achievements of the Classical world had long been admired by more modern European theorists who considered that with a good understanding of Classical writers such as Julius Frontinus or Claudius Aelianus the 'Art of War' could be revolutionised. Initially this fascination took the form of direct translations of Greek and Roman authors but the next stage, of commentaries on their use in modern warfare, soon followed. The first of these was Niccolo Macchiavelli's Libra della arte della guerra, which was published in Florence in 1521 and soon translated from the Italian. The first English edition was printed by Peter Whitehorne in 1560. A number of 16th century writers, such as Diego de Salazar and Giulio Fcrretti, made similar if less
It is amusing to read in reputedly well-informed British periodicals that the Republic and its politicians had bestowed the inestimable boon of electric light upon the poor country villagers. The writers probably believe this, and are unaware that the credit for the initiative in most of the great hydro-electric schemes was due to the Dictatorship, whose schemes would have absorbed something like the total estimated national wealth . . . The Ministers of the Dictatorship
By the late 1840s, Brady's reputation for excellence had made him the preferred portrait photographer of the rich and famous. His subjects ranged from politicians like President Martin Van Buren (1782-1862) and Senator John Calhoun (1782-1850) to such celebrities as writer Edgar Allan Poe (1809-1849) and circus showman Phineas T. Barnum (1810-1891). In 1851, Brady published a book of photographs called Gallery of Illustrious Americans that further cemented his reputation as one of the nation's master photographers. He also married Julia Handy, the daughter of a prominent Maryland lawyer, around this time.
Sojourner Truth was born a slave in New York State around 1797. In 1827, she ran away from her master and took refuge with a New York abolitionist family named Van Wagener. She took their family name and supported herself by working as a domestic. In 1843, after claiming to have heard divine voices, she renamed herself Sojourner Truth and began lecturing on the cause of abolitionism. An illiterate, she dictated her life story to writer Olive Gilbert, and her book, Narrative of Sojourner Truth, became a best-seller in the years before the Civil War. The money she earned from her lectures and book sales helped support the work of the Underground Railroad. In the years following the war, Sojourner took up the cause of women's rights and continued her speaking career well into old age.
The outbreak of hostilities in the autumn of 1642 provided little time for communities to construct defences reflecting the latest continental principles. Few places possessed anything resembling fortifications that could be considered modern by mid-17th-century standards, and the citizens had to scramble quickly to build some kind of defensive barriers to ward off the marauding bands of partisan forces that were springing up around England. Not since the Spanish Armada of 1588 had the country faced a threat of military action, although some towns had put their fortifications in order due to the invasion of the Scots in 1640. Fearing such an attack, the ancient city of York had made preparations for a possible siege. One writer described 'many Bulwarks raised', while another reported a visit by Charles I to the city on 31 August 1640 'The king rode about (he city, accompanied with the Marquis of Hamilton, several general officers, some aldermen and citizens, and with pickaxes, spades...
In 1845, Douglass wrote a book about his experiences as a slave, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass. It was popular among people who opposed slavery and sold thirty thousand copies over the next five years. Since the book was so well written, some people doubted that a former slave could have written it. But these people became convinced as soon as they heard Douglass speak. Douglass's success as an antislavery writer and speaker helped him bring his message to large numbers of people. But as he grew more famous, his life also became more dangerous. After all, Douglass was still a fugitive slave. His master knew where he was and could send a slave catcher to capture him and return him to the South at any time.
The following year, Fremont got an opportunity to lead his own expedition. He took a survey team to the Rocky Mountains. When he returned in 1843, he produced a colorful report for Congress with the help of his wife, who was an accomplished writer. The report included detailed maps, a catalog of plants and rocks, latitude and longitude readings of key spots, and advice for settlers, along with exciting stories about Fremont's adventures. It was soon published as a book and became very popular. People across the eastern part of the country hailed Fremont as a hero. Newspapers even gave him a nickname, the Pathfinder.
Pollard spent much of the 1850s wandering around the globe. He spent the first part of the decade in Europe, where he supported himself as a writer for newspapers and magazines. He then moved on to California and Mexico before landing in the Central American country of Nicaragua. Once he arrived in Nicaragua, he allied himself with slaveowners who were trying to expand slavery into the region. The path of our destiny on this continent lies in . . . tropical America where we may see an empire as powerful and gorgeous as ever was pictured in our dreams of history, Pollard wrote in 1859. An empire . . . representing the noble peculiarities of Southern civilization. . . . The destiny of Southern civilization is to be consummated completed in a glory brighter even than that of old. In the end, however, these efforts to establish Southern-style slavery in Nicaragua failed.
In 1904, Martin met a writer from New York named Myrta Lockett Avary. Avary read Chesnut's journals and insisted on publishing them. Excerpts first appeared in the popular magazine Saturday Evening Post under the title A Diary from Dixie. In 1905, the excerpts were compiled into a book of the same name. But the book was much different from the original journal entries Chesnut had written during the Civil War. Martin, who served as editor of the book, cut nearly half of the material in order to avoid offending people. It still re
Julia Ward married a prominent older man, Samuel Gridley Howe, in 1843. He was a medical doctor who ran a hospital for the deaf and blind in Boston, Massachusetts. He was also a social reformer who worked to improve conditions and treatment methods for his patients. Although Samuel Howe respected his wife's intelligence, he still believed that women's primary role should be as homemakers and mothers. For this reason, he was not particularly supportive of Howe's efforts as a writer. Partly as a way to please her husband, Howe had six children over the next fifteen years.
In the years following the publication of Uncle Tom's Cabin, Stowe was the most famous writer in the world. She traveled around Europe, where she was entertained by royalty. When she returned to the United States, her home became a center for abolitionist activity. The fees she collected from her book made her wealthy, but all the money and attention did not change the way she lived. in the South treated her kindly. In 1873, she sold the house in Hartford and bought a smaller one next door to fellow writer Samuel Clemens (1835-1910), who later became famous under the pen name Mark Twain. Stowe's husband died in 1886, and her beloved brother Henry Ward Beecher died the following year. In 1889, she helped her son Charles Edward Stowe collect her papers and publish her biography, The Life of Harriet Beecher Stowe. Shortly afterward, she suffered a stroke and grew weak. She died on July 1, 1896, at her home in Hartford.
When Howe's mother died in 1824, her father became even more restrictive with his daughters. He did not allow them to attend parties, see plays, or read popular books because he wanted to protect them from harmful outside influences. But Howe loved to read and dreamed of becoming a writer. She often rebelled against her father's rules, especially when she spent time with less-strict relatives on the Atlantic coast each summer. Her oldest brother and several other family members encouraged her to pursue her writing.
However, Estanislau Torres, the well-known Catalan writer who was a pupil at the school, assured me in a kind letter that those who tried to burn it were not from that district and that when the neighbours told them that the chapel and school were not Catholic but Protestant, they all helped the firemen to put it out.
What the fanatics had been expecting and wanting, we can deduce from the words that, ten months later, a Francoist wrote in an issue of the popular Seminario Nacional, which was published in San Sebastian. He fiercely criticized the meeting that Cardinal Pacelli had just had at Lourdes with Yvon Delbos, the French Foreign Minister. Declaring that he should have gone to Santiago de Compostela, not to Lourdes, and, recalling the audience at Castelgandolfo, at which Pacelli had been present, and the speech of Pius XI, which the writer supposed had been written by Pacelli, he said
After the attack at the Tribune those laying in the street were allowed to be carried off by their friends returning for them, and the square looked somewhat like a field of battle. In the charge ordered by Capt. Thorne, very many of the locusts were broken by the men of this precinct pretty good evidence that when they hit they meant to hurt. When the mob was being driven off, the writer of the ''Record'' came very near experiencing the locusts while attempting to reach the Times Building. But for the prompt recognition of officer Frank Brown, of the Twenty-sixth Precinct, who rushed forward and warded off three well-raised and well-aimed clubs, he would have had a serious and practical experience wherewith to speak of ''locusts.'' Sergeant Devoursney was in the crowd alone and edging his way to the Tribune office just before the mob broke into it he had got on to the sidewalk, and drawing his revolver was about to shoot the man cheering on the crowd, and who was also engaged in...
Several other English writers improved on Bingham's work with thorough guides to the new drill, Gervase Markham, Thomas Fisher, Henry Hexham and William Barriffe being the best known. These drill masters attempted to provide their readers with everything they needed to know about the military arts and with the Thirty Years War spreading throughout Europe there was considerable interest in, and a considerable market for, their works. Some, such as William BarrifTe, mentioned the new Swedish style, but English drill and military theory remained essentially Dutch. Most Englishmen seeking military service did so in the Dutch army or those of the Protestant German princes who followed Dutch styles.
Most English writers in the 1620s and 1630s still held that a company should have equal proportions of pikemen and musketeers, and Trained Band units were still equipped in this way on the eve of the first Bishops' War in 1639 but opinion was beginning to favour an increased ratio of musketeers. (A proportion of pikemen were still necessary, of course, as only the protection they offered could prevent under most circumstances an infantry unit being ridden into the ground by a determined and well-timed cavalry
It was the first victory of any great substance that the North had had to celebrate. The commanders in Washington, leader-writers for the newspapers, and the public contrasted Grant's aggressive vigour with the cautious and tentative approach being shown by the commander of the Army of the Potomac in the eastern theatre. They particularly liked the wording of his surrender letter, and the coincidence of the general's initials with the phrase 'unconditional surrender'.
Ideas had been stolen by a l)r Chillingworth and that the Royalists were developing siege engines based on his designs, some of which were used at the siege of Gloucester in 1643 after a design. One source suggests that the Parliamentarians may have left behind a 'sow' when Beeston Castle, Cheshire, was relieved in March 1645, although the writer might have confused Beeston with Gloucester. This was described as a lower of wood, musket-proof, mounted on wheels and hauled by oxen. The tower was divided into rooms with loopholes.
In fact, however, period writers do not mention any fourth divisions or their flags in the Army of the Potomac for the period. Colonel Charles Wainwright jotted this description in his diary only two days after the new order setting up the flag system was issued 'One of the first (orders) prescribes the powers of corps commanders, and also designates flags for each headquarters. First Division's ji r will carry a red flag ft by 5 Second Division's blue Third Division's red and blue vertical. Ours being the Second will have a blue flag.'
African Americans well understood that a constitutional amendment that emancipated the slaves might do little to prevent economic and legal inequality. For evidence of the potential shortcomings of emancipation, black activists had only to look at free African Americans in the North, most of whom were the victims of disfranchisement and discrimination.67 An anonymous black writer derided those who agitated for emancipation, arguing that freedom for the slaves would do little to change the degraded condition of African Americans in general The slave bears the irons of slavery the other the free black has been relieved from them, but, enclosed in the same dark dungeon with the former, they are both pris-oners. 68 Nor had the military service of African Americans improved their legal status. In April 1863 Douglass had promised free blacks that to fight for the Government in this tremendous war is to fight for nationality and for a place with all other classes of our fellow-citizens. But...
The Fugitive Slave Act had a strong effect on a young writer named Harriet Beecher Stowe (1811-1896). The daughter of prominent religious leader Lyman Beecher (1775-1863), Stowe was born in Litchfield, Connecticut. In 1832, she moved with her family to Cincinnati, a city in the southern part of Ohio just across the Ohio River from the slave-holding state of Kentucky. Stowe occasionally encountered fugitive slaves while living in Cincinnati. She also read American Slavery as It Is by abolitionist Theodore Dwight Weld (1803-1895), a collection of articles about slavery and advertisements for slaves from Southern newspapers. Stowe moved to Brunswick, Maine, the same year that the Fugitive Slave Act was passed. The new law inspired her to begin a novel that became the single most important piece of antislavery literature in American history.
General Meade came in for more calumny than praise. President Lincoln was disgusted that he had not captured the entire Confederate force, which looked far easier on a Washington map than on a muddy Maryland ridgeline. George Meade had won the war's largest battle, scant hours after taking command, and had done so against an enemy army that had been inevitably triumphant theretofore but politicians and press, followed eventually by many historical writers, grumbled that he should have done more.
But industrialisation, urban growth and the escalation of class conflicts substantially changed this situation during the first three decades of the twentieth century. Some writers on Catholic affairs, concerned by the consequences of these changes, noted that the urban poor displayed a deep distrust of Catholicism, as it was always on the side of the rich and the employers, and the Church was considered to be a class enemy. On the eve of the Republic, so these writers say, the urban proletariat in Madrid, Barcelona, Valencia and Seville, and from the mining areas of Asturias and Vizcaya, rarely entered a church, and were unaware of Catholic doctrines and ritual. Many priests in the large estate regions of Andalusia and Extremadura would often draw attention to the growing hostility shown to them and the Church by day-labourers 'polluted' by socialist and anarchist propaganda.
Because Lincoln's renomination was so secure, the convention spent most of its energy reshaping the party's image. One of the major efforts in that direction was the Republicans' christening of themselves as the National Union Party. Union parties had formed at the county and state level since the beginning of the war. Generally conceived of as provisional organizations, they combined people of any political background willing to support the war. Lincoln had endorsed and nurtured these organizations, knowing that they would widen his administration's constituency in the years to come. Few people expected these loose coalitions to last beyond the war, however, so when the Republicans at Baltimore presented themselves as the National Union Party, most observers likewise doubted the staying power of the alliance between regular Republicans and pro-Lincoln War Democrats.28 Yet for many Republicans, the new name reflected a genuine desire to restyle the party that had been created in the...
Republicans in the early years of the war rarely considered amending the Constitution for any purpose. A number of Republican lawyers, politicians, and treatise writers griped about the inadequacy of the Constitution to handle such wartime phenomena as confiscation and disloyalty. The remedies they prescribed, however, were not long-term amendments but instead short-term actions whose constitutionality rested on the principle of wartime necessity.66 Only the most radical Republicans pondered an antislavery amendment. Lydia Maria Child, for example, wrote in 1862 that the people should modify the Constitution to get rid of the virus infused throughout the blood of our body politic. But Child herself foresaw the main obstacle to an antislavery amendment. Wholesale lauding of the Constitution has made it an object of idol-worship, wrote the reformer Americans would never consent to changing a word of it.67 In early 1863 a few antislavery politicians toyed with the idea of having Senator...
Fremont, who had issued an unauthorized emancipation proclamation in Missouri, with MajorGeneral Henry Halleck. At 46, Halleck, a West Point graduate, had already demonstrated brilliance as a writer of military theory. When the war broke out, he was perhaps the most sought-after Union commander. He would be sent to St Louis to bring some semblance of order to the chaos. As a result of the reorganization of military departments in the west, Halleck
In what seems to be a largely factual account of Italian and German intervention, how might the reader detect an underlying purpose on the part of the writer (5) 5. How adequate are these sources in explaining the motivation and impact of Italian and German intervention in Spain up to March 1937 (9)
THE GENERAL EDITOR, David Chandler, formerly head of the Department of War Studies at Sandhurst, Britain's Royal Military Academy, is a military historian of international renown. For the Osprey Campaign Series he has assembled a team of expert writers from both sides of the Atlantic.
JAMES ARNOLD AND ROBERTA WIENER are US-born freelance writers mho have contributed to numerous military publications. James spent his formative years in Europe and used the opportunity to study the sites of historic battlefields. He has 15 published books to his credit, many of them focusing on the Napoleonic campaigns and the American Civil War. Roberta Wiener has co-authored several works of history and edited history and science books, including a children's encyclopaedia. She also carries out archival research on military history topics.
In the late 1890s, Bierce's reputation as one of the West's leading journalists and writers began to fade. He watched with anger and envy as other writers became more famous, even though many of them had less talent. He became particularly envious of Stephen Crane, whose 1895 Civil War novel The Red Badge of Courage received a level of A native of Newark, New Jersey, Crane knew that he wanted to be a writer from a young age. His first novel, Maggie A Girl of the Streets (1893) was not popular. But The Red Badge of Courage made Crane famous all across America, as readers rushed to buy his amazingly realistic Civil War tale. Eager to make use of Crane's notoriety (fame) and writing ability, several newspaper publishers subsequently hired him as a war correspondent. Crane spent the next few years reporting on wars in
The election was a sectionalized contest between the North, which held a majority of the electoral votes and pitted Lincoln and Douglas against each other, and the South, which pitted Breckinridge against John Bell. Although Lincoln and Douglas accounted tor nearly 90 percent of the vote in the North, in the South Douglas won only Missouri, and Lincoln was not even on the ballot in 10 slave states. Breckinridge and Bell received over 85 percent of the Southern popular vote and barely over 10 percent in the North. Significantly, however, the Constitutional Union candidate, Bell, carried only three Upper South states - Virginia, Kentucky, and Tennessee. In the end, Lincoln received only 40 percent of the popular vote, but gained the Norths 180 electoral votes. Still, the Republicans had not won control of either house of Congress. Shortly after the election, Republican editor and writer William Cullen Bryant boasted that 'the cause of justice and liberty has triumphed,' and although the...
Abolitionist, writer, and speaker Escaped from slavery to become one of the most prominent activists in the antislavery movement Frederick Douglass began his life as a slave. After escaping to the North in 1838, Douglass became a leading figure in the fight to abolish (put an end to) slavery in the United States and gain equal rights for black Americans. He was an accomplished writer and speaker who used the power of words to convince people that slavery was wrong. He was one of the country's first great black leaders.
Dragoons were neither inlantry nor cavalry proper. Turner reckoned them no more than infantry who rode into action, then dismounted to ftght. and their status in the Eastern Association seems to have been that of foot, recruited partly by impressment Examples exist of dragoons reverting 10 foot, but also of conversion to horse, whilst foot could be made into dragoons with apparently little difficulty, quite apart from the use of mounting foot on horseback to expedite their movement Crusodescribed dragoons armed with pikes and matchlocks (though the former are not lecofded as used in Britain and the latter doubtless replaced by firelocks whenever possible). with a horse of the least price, the use thereof being but to expedite his march, allighting to do his service'3. Morkham'sdragoonhasabuff-coatand helmet, making him a cavalryman, though another writer remarks that dragoomers are to be as Itghily armed as may be, and therefore they are onlio to have as followeth, calivers and powder...
The election was a sectionalized contest between the North, which held a majority of the electoral votes and pitted Lincoln and Douglas against each other, and the South, which pitted Breckinridge against John Bell. Although Lincoln and Douglas accounted for nearly 90 percent of the vote in the North, in the South Douglas won only Missouri, anil Lincoln was not even on the ballot in 10 slave states. Breckinridge anil Bell received over 85 percent of the Southern popular vote and barely over 10 percent in the North. Significantly, however, the Constitutional Union candidate, Bell, carried only three Upper South states - Virginia, Kentucky, anil Tennessee. In the end, Lincoln received only 40 percent of the popular vote, but gained the North's 180 electoral votes. Still, the Republicans had not won control of either house of Congress. Shortly after the election, Republican editor and writer William Cullen Bryant boasted that 'the cause of justice anil liberty has triumphed,' and...
The basic fighting space required for an infantryman, either musketeer or pikeman, was described as 'order'. For an infantryman it was three feet per man, including the ground he stood on. However, the frontage of the infantry formations was more than three feet for every man in the front line as musketeers were formed in blocks with six-foot intervals between them. The basic fighting space required for a cavalryman is also described as 'order', but there was a difference in die way it was measured. The English writer John Cruso described this as 'here we must observe a difference between the manner of taking the distance of the Cavallrie, and that of the Infanterie for in the foot, the distance is taken from the center of the Souldiers bodie which here cannot be so understood, but onely of the space between horse and horse'. The space a cavalryman requires is the ground occupied by his horse plus three feet.
Pollard emerged as one of the South's best known commentators on Confederate leadership and military strategy during the Civil War. As the editorial page editor of the Richmond Examiner, Pollard's harsh criticism of Confederate president Jefferson Davis (1808-1889 see entry) and other political leaders turned him into one of the South's most controversial writers. In addition, he published an annual series of books during the Civil War in which he provided his own interpretations of the war's progress. These volumes, which also attracted a lot of attention, made Pollard one of the first historians of the Confederacy.
I ulia Ward Howe accomplished many things as a writer, lec-I turer, abolitionist, and promoter of women's rights. But she is best remembered as the author of the words to Battle Hymn of the Republic, the stirring song that became the Union anthem during the Civil War. The song's popularity, combined with her active support of various social causes, made her one of the most famous and respected women of her time.
To be caught in the wrong place behind the lines in the summer of 1936 was a death warrant without appeal. Violence was widespread, ideologically driven and vicious. Extremists on left and right believed that the world could be reshaped by terror. The poet and playwright Federico Garcia Lorca was arrested by the Falange on 16 August 1936 in his home city of Granada. He was executed on the morning of 18 August. Garcia Lorca was 38 years old, an outstanding talent even in the glittering array of Spanish experimental writers of the 1920s and 1930s. He was not interested in partisan politics. But his homosexuality and his plays, with their critique of the stifling effects of Catholic, bourgeois conventions, attracted the hatred of the new masters of Granada. His fame proved no protection.
France, whose socialist administration led by Leon Blum was sympathetic, was the only country to ignore the pointless League of Nations prohibition on outside interference and to respond to the Republic's appeal at this early date. Equipment began to find its way south down a tactfully obscure route. The writer Andr Malraux began forming a volunteer 'Esquadra Espa a' at Toulouse, which received seventeen new but unarmed Dewoitine D.372 parasol-wing monoplane fighters originally destined for an eastern European customer. The pilots, led by one Abel Guides, included at least three former First World War pilots they arrived at Madrid on 5 August and until the fourteen D.372s, which actually arrived, were armed they flew whatever was available. The dates
Although the cast iron round shot was the commonest form of projectile in use during the 17th century, stone projectiles were in use as were those made from lead. There are even many examples of shot formed of a central iron cube but cast in lead. All of those projectiles were used at long range for siege work. The main problem during this period was that shot sizes tended to be non-standard so that ammunition made for one gun would not fit another. Several contemporary writers have written about the need f or the gentleman gunner to check the size of shot prior to an engagement and then to place the shot in the correct pile so that they were easily discernible. It was also the custom to use smaller diameter shot and wrap them in a coating of lead or anything to hand should ammunition stocks become low. Shot was often cast in a small mould that was held by two long tongs and filled individually with molten iron.
Fremont, who had issued an unauthorized emancipation proclamation in Missouri, with Major-General Henry Halleck. At 46. Halleck, a West Point graduate, had already demonstrated brilliance as a writer of military theory. When the war broke out. he was perhaps the most sought-after Union commander. He would be sent to St Louis to bring some semblance of order to the chaos. As a result of the reorganization of military departments in the west, Halleck
The political situation in Ukraine from 1917 to 1922 was complicated, to say the least. Towards the end of 1917 a group of nationalists in Kiev declared the Ukrainian Peoples' Republic. They were led by a Central Rada (council) led by Vladimir Vinnichenko, a writer, and Simon Petlyura, ajournalist. Bolshevik troops invaded in January 1918 and set up their own Soviet Ukrainian government. This was short-lived on 3 March 1918 the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk formally recognised a new Ukrainian state. The Soviets were replaced by German troops, who marched into Ukraine in force and appointed Pavel Skoropadsky as 'Hetman' (supreme chief) of Ukraine. With Germany's collapse at the end of World War I, the German grip on the Ukraine weakened. In December 1918 Skoropadsky escaped to Berlin disguised as a German officer. The nationalists again took control, with Petlyura as commander-in-chief and Vinnichenko as president of a 'Directoria' government. This lasted until September 1919 when the Ai med...
What do contemporary writers have to say about fortified sites during the war Subsequent English authors of fortification studies such as Thomas Venn and John Cmso fail to make mention of the English works, preferring instead to use continental examples. The Parliamentarian veteran and 'Master Gunner of the City of Worcester', Nathaniel Nye, in his Art of Gunney of 1670 makes a brief mention of the 'Leaguer' before Worcester and his artillery observations of various structures and fortifications in the city but does not provide any assessment. The notorious Parliamentarian pamphleteer William Prynne, who suffered the indignity or having both ears cut off for various comments against officialdom and was imprisoned in Pendennis Castle during the Protectorate wrote a lengthy diatribe in 1658 shortly after his release, in which he attempted to downplay the effectiveness of fortified places in wartime. Echoing the earlier sentiments of Sir John Meldrum, he stated categorically that...
The Confederate prison in Ander-sonville, Georgia, is the best known of the many prisoner-of-war camps that operated during the American Civil War. But captured soldiers imprisoned at other camps endured horrible conditions as well. According to mortality (rate of death) statistics, Andersonville was not even the worst prison in the South. That distinction goes to a Confederate prison in Salisbury, North Carolina, where 34 percent of the 10,321 Union soldiers imprisoned died (by comparison, 29 percent of the Union prisoners held at Andersonville died). Meanwhile, at the Belle Isle Prison in Richmond, Virginia, prisoners received so little food that 90 percent of the Union soldiers who survived weighed less than one hundred pounds. Can these be men asked writer Walt Whitman (1819-1892) when he saw several former prisoners at Belle Isle. Are they not really mummied, dwindled corpses They lay there, most of them, quite still, but with a horrible look in their eyes and skinny lips (often...
What do contemporary writers have to say about fortified sites during the war Subsequent English authors of fortification studies such as Thomas Venn and John Cruso fail to make mention of the English works, preferring instead to use continental examples. The Parliamentarian veteran and 'Master Gunner of the City of Worcester', Nathaniel Nye, in his Art of Guimey of 1670 makes a brief mention of the 'Leaguer' before Worcester and his artillery observations of various structures and fortifications in the city but does not provide any assessment. The notorious Parliamentarian pamphleteer William Prynne, who suffered the indignity or having both ears cut off for various comments against officialdom and was imprisoned in Pendennis Castle during the Protectorate wrote a lengthy diatribe in 1658 shortly after his release, in which he attempted to downplay the effectiveness of fortified places in wartime. Echoing the earlier sentiments of Sir John Meldrum, he stated categorically that...