Brigadier General John B. Hood's proud Texans of the Texas Brigade suffered the greatest casualties of any unit during the battle, yet held on.

remainder of the brigade formed a second line. Additionally, Gibbon was supported bv the 1st Division's 1st Brigade, commanded by Colonel Walter Phelps of the 22nd New York and the 2nd Division's 3rd Brigade commanded by Brigadier General Lucas Hartsuff. Gibbon's men resisted stubbornly. The Federal gunners of Battery B/4th United States Artillery, commanded by Lieutenant James Stewart, shelled the cornfield with spherical case shot and finally gave the advancing rebels canister at close range. Captain Jonathan Callis took his 7th Wisconsin from Gibbon's second line, changed front, and hit Hood's left flank hard. The unexpected attack of the 7th Wisconsin shook Hood's men and 'broke them up badly', wrote Callis, 'scattering them in great confusion.' Hood's officers reformed their men, however, and the desperate battle over Miller's cornfield continued. 'Not one showed any disposition', stated Lieutenant Colonel S. Z. Ruff of the 18th Georgia, 'notwithstanding their terrible loss, to fall back or flinch from the enemy until they received orders to do so.'

A serving US soldier since 1822, Major General Joseph K. F. Mansfield was mortally wounded while leading his XII Corps forward to support I Corps.

Hood's assault had stalled by 0720. The cornfield was only momentarily retaken, but more significantly the force of Hood's counter-attack had stabilized Jackson's position. The conflict on the Confederate left seemed more savage to the participants than any combat experiences they might have had earlier in the War. Hooker wrote in his report: 'The slain lay in rows precisely as they had stood in their ranks a few moments before. It was never my fortune to witness a more bloody, dismal battlefield.'

McClellan's battle plan apparently intended that Hooker's assault be picked up by Federal XII Corps, deploying by 0730 on Hooker's left flank. XII Corps was commanded by Major General Joseph King Fenno Mansfield.

XII Corps Attacks

Mansfield logically assumed on the morning of 17 September, given McClellan's general plan, that his mission was to continue Hooker's successful assault against Lee's left. He had received no information to

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