New Yorks Finest

Duryee's Zouaves A few weeks before the demise of the Fire Zouaves the 5th New York Volunteer Infantry, Duryee's Zouaves, had proved their mettle with a charge at Big Bethel, the first land action of the American Civil War, and throughout its two-year service the 5th Would live up to all its ideals. The unir would also hold the grim record that in the entire war no other Union infantry regiment suffered so great a number of casualties in so short a space of time, during a single day's battle.

Mustered in on 22 April 1X61, the 5th New-York Volunteer Infantry was commanded by Colonel Abram Dunce, elected to the post by a

The 5th Sew York »lurch down Broadway mi their way In war in 1N(>1. This woodcut, based on tt sketch by the artist and reporter Frank lizetelly, was featured in the London Illustrated News on 22 June 1361. Note the band, who appear to be wearing some kind oj fezzes with visors on the fronts. This is probably artistic licence. {Brian Pohanka)

group ol military enthusiasts meeting in Manhattan to organise a new volunteer regiment. Originally called the Advance Guard, the regiment soon became better known as Duryee's Zouaves.

A b ra m 1) u rv ee w a s a w c a It h y m a h oga n > merchant and former commanding officer of the famed 7th New York, where he had built up a line reputation as a drilimaster. Duryee had seen a display by Ellsworth's Zouave Cadets and decided that his new regiment would be Zouaves, The 5th New York quickly achieved an elite status, boasting a high proportion of well-educated men. Recruited largely in Manhattan, Ml per ccnt of the regiment were native-born Americans, but it also boasted dozens of Englishmen in its ranks. At the Battle of Second Bull Run, the 5th's costliest engagement, both ihe regiment's British-born colour bearers, Sergeant Andrew B. Allison and Sergeant Francis Spelman, were mortally wounded.

On 23 May 1Sf>I the 5th New York proudly marched off to war, S4S strong; when the regiment returned home two years later, fewer than 300 men were left in (he ranks. The regiment's baptism of fire, at Big Bethel in

Royalist Weapons Roundtop Weapons

5th Xew York officers on lite steps of the Segar House near Camp Hamilton, Virginia, 1861. Lieutenant Colonel Gouvemeur Kemble W arren flourishes a telescope, while the getitle man at the front striking a memorable pose is Colonel Duryee. Regimental chaplain Cordon Winslow is sealed al the table, and adjutant Hamblin is the lull man standing in the background wearing a kepi. (Brian Pohanka)

Zouave Kep

Virginia on 10 June 1861, came when Union forces attempted to capture a Confederate encampment; Singing 'Bingo', a popular song of the time, the 5th New York charged proudly into battle, attacking in a thickly wooded area heavily under fire from Confederate artillery.

Part of Colonel Duryee's uniform was torn away at the shoulder, while Captain Judson Kilpatrick, the commander of Company H, was badly cut through the thigh by canister shot. Kilpatrick, who became a cavalry commander later in the war and was nicknamed 'Kill Cavalry* because of the way he drove his men, continued to stagger forward, until the pain of his wound forced him to give up.

Hut such gallantry was wasted: after a couple of hours the Federals had failed to capture the encampment and gave up their assault. The fight had cost the 5th New York si\ dead and 13 wounded.

In July 1S61 the 5th New York were ordered to Baltimore, Maryland, for an eight-month stint of garrison duty, Maryland was a state with much pro-Southern sympathy, and some sections of the community did not take kindly to the regiment, but gentlemen all, Duryee's Zouaves became popular in Baltimore. Several of them even married local belles, who were left behind in

March 18fi2, when the 5th New York joined the Union assault on Richmond up through the Virginia Peninsula; there they were brigaded with the regular troops of General George Sykes1 division.

At Gaines' Mill on 27 June, one of the Seven Days Battles to stop the Federals threatening Richmond, the 5th New York was involved in a series of desperate charges against superior rebel forces, smashing into the 1st South Carolina Rifles no fewer thah three times. During the battle the 5th's two colour hearers stood 30 paces in front of the regiment's line and defied the enemy. Inspired by this action, the 5th went in with the bayonet, but despite such courage the Confederate line held.

Exhausted and out of ammunition, the 5th was relieved by the 1st Pennsylvania Reserves;. With shells exploding all around his Zouaves, Lieutenant Colonel Hiram Duryea, the regiment's third commander, coolly ordered the 5th into line and had them count off. Despite their hard fight, he wanted the ranks dressed properly before the men marched off to replenish their cartridge boxes.

Earlier in the battle Duryea had been cheered by his men as he calmly trotted up and down the 5th's line on his horse, Black Jack, not even

Battle Mine Creek

I group of 5th Mew York Zouaves wait fur lunch at (jiiin/i Hamilton in June or July ¡861, The men wear the early uniform of Duryee's Zouaves, which had less baggy trousers and a blue instead of a yellow tassel <in the fezzes. The early uni forms of Duryee 's Zouaves were not of the best quality and wore out i/uickly. (Brian Pohanka)

flinching when ¿1 shell ploughed into the ground right under the animal. The 5th's bloodiest day-came at Second Hull Run in August 1862. Brigaded with the 10th \ew York, they Were hit by a huge Confederate attack from I .on»street's Corps. Bludgeoned from three sides at once, 120 members of the 5th New York were killed or mortal!) wounded in seven minutes, 17{J were wounded and 27 were captured. Out of a total of 550 men, 326 were casualties. In the entire war, no other Union infantry regiment lost as many men in such a short space of time during a single day's battle.

Many of the wounded Zouaves had been hit more than once, and even those who Survived the carnage had bullet holes through their clothes and were badly scratched. Sergeant Andrew B. Allison, who carried the national colours, was shot through the wrist and then through the heart. Regimental colour bearer Sergeant Francis Spelman had multiple wounds but clung grimly to his standard, yelling: 'For God's sake don't let them take my flag.' Spelman died a few days after the battle; despite the carnage, the Sth's colours were borne to safety as the remnants of the Zouaves retreated, every man for himself.

Two Zouaves waded through a stream, and their baggy trousers filled up with water. Members of the 5th Texas took pot shots at the hapless New Yorkers, and some of their bullets pierced one of the Zouave's sodden trousers. Out squirted jets of water, and the rebels couldn't stop themselves laughing,

The 5th New York went on to serve at \ntietam, Shepherdstown, Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville, but irs casualties remained light.

Zouave Trousers

Zouaves were front page news in ¡861. This illustration from Harper's Weekly shows the 5th New York, Duryee's Zouaves, at Fortress Monroe in l irginia. The ¡lowing pieces of cloth worn under their fezzes, also seen in the illustration of the 5th marching down Broadway, are called havelocks; popular items in the early Civil War years. At the start of the war, 5th .\lew } ork Zouaves smnetiwes wore turbans around their fezzes and their havelocks buttoned up around their chins. (Ron Field)

Zouaves were front page news in ¡861. This illustration from Harper's Weekly shows the 5th New York, Duryee's Zouaves, at Fortress Monroe in l irginia. The ¡lowing pieces of cloth worn under their fezzes, also seen in the illustration of the 5th marching down Broadway, are called havelocks; popular items in the early Civil War years. At the start of the war, 5th .\lew } ork Zouaves smnetiwes wore turbans around their fezzes and their havelocks buttoned up around their chins. (Ron Field)

After Chancellorsville, in May 1863, the regiment's term of service expired and the battle-hardened veterans of Dunce's Zouaves returned home, parading down Broadway. 'The men were brown and rugged; their colors were weather-stained and bullet-torn; iheir uniforms were tattered and stained with Virginia mud and the smoke of hard-fought Conflicts. They looked magnificent,' reported the New York Times.

The reputation of Duryee's Zouaves didn't end with the regiment's homecoming parade. Two other regiments had their roots in the fth: the 165th New York, also known as the Second Battalion Duryee Zouaves, and the 5th New York Veteran Volunteers. Men of the original 5th New York, who had signed on for three years and whose time of service had not expired, were transferred to the 146th New York.

165th New York

After Second Bull Run a detail of officers and men from the depleted ranks of the 5th were sent to New York to recruit for the regiment. The cash bounties they offered at the Sth's recruiting olfice in Manhattan and the good name of the regiment attracted so many recruits that a new eight-company battalion was raised, becoming the 165th New York, Commanded by I .ieuienant-coloncl Abel Smith Jnr, the regiment was quartered at Camp Washington, on Staten Island, where the\ were mustered in on 28 November 1862 and presented with their colours by a group of dignitaries on 13 December.

Plans to create a four-regiment Zouave brigade in the Army of the Potomac were shelved with the removal of General George McClellan from command, and the 165th were ordered down to Louisiana, where they joined General Nathaniel Banks' forces attacking Port I iudson, ihe Confederate stronghold on the Mississippi River.

On 27 May 1863 the 165th took part in a ferocious assault on the rebel defences. The cost was high: the 165th losi 108 Zouaves, more than a third of its men. Lieutenant-cakmel Abel Smith was mortall) wounded, and both colour bearers and five men of the colour guard w ere killed.

Major Felix Agnus took over command of the 165th New York. A frenchman who had served

Band Sharps Rifle

Corporal 5th Nap York-. Federal Hill, Baltimore, autumn ¡861. \ole thai he is wearing leather greaves, known as fambieres, above his gaiters and is armed with a Sharps rifle. Only Companies F and I of the Sth Sew York, who were used as skirmishers, were issued with these famous breech-loading rifles. (Richard FilibalsJ

Corporal 5th Nap York-. Federal Hill, Baltimore, autumn ¡861. \ole thai he is wearing leather greaves, known as fambieres, above his gaiters and is armed with a Sharps rifle. Only Companies F and I of the Sth Sew York, who were used as skirmishers, were issued with these famous breech-loading rifles. (Richard FilibalsJ

witli the French 3rd Regiment of Zouaves and Garibaldi's forces, Agnus had emigrated to America in I860 settling in New York. On the outbreak of war he had joined Duryee's Zouaves as a sergeant and was later promoted to second lieutenant. Agnus was wounded in the shoulder at Gaines' Mill, and while recovering was promoted to the rank of first lieutenant in the 5th. However, he had chosen to transfer to the 165th New York, where lie had been commissioned captain ol Company A, the colour company, \gnus had been

Duryees Zouaves

He treated Slh \ea> York Zouave on campaign in 1862. Fortunately he has managed to retain the complete Zouave dress. Hard campaigning and supply problems took a heavy toll on the Sth's uniforms, but the Zouaves patched and re-patched their famous baggy red trousers rather than give them up. Some 5th New Yorkers were in the habit of wearing the turbans they wore on parade in the field, hut this Zouave is content to wear his Je& unadorned. (Photo: Pan! Smith)

He treated Slh \ea> York Zouave on campaign in 1862. Fortunately he has managed to retain the complete Zouave dress. Hard campaigning and supply problems took a heavy toll on the Sth's uniforms, but the Zouaves patched and re-patched their famous baggy red trousers rather than give them up. Some 5th New Yorkers were in the habit of wearing the turbans they wore on parade in the field, hut this Zouave is content to wear his Je& unadorned. (Photo: Pan! Smith)

slightly wounded in the 165th's attack on the earthworks at Port Hudson, and promoted to major lie led a hand-picked forlorn hope in the final assault on the stronghold.

After the Confederate surrender at Port Hudson, the 165th served in western Louisiana and even skirmished with the legendary Confederate cavalrv outfit Terry's Texas Rangers. During a hand-to-hand duel with a mounted Ranger, Agnus was badh slashed across the wrist, The 165th later served with Grant's forces in \ irginia, and in 1864 they took part in Sheridan's

Shenandoah Valley Campaign. Agnus claimed he received no fewer than 11 wounds in the war, and it was said that he had 'so much lead in him he rattled when he walked'.

5th New York Veteran Volunteers

The .Sth New York Veteran \olunteers was the brainchild of Colonel Cleveland Winslow, whö as acting major had commanded the original 5th New York at Second Manassas, where his horse had been shot from under him. Anxious that the good name of Duryee's Zouaves should not be lost, Winslow used his political influence and a 500-doIlar grant from the New York stock

Blockade Runner New York State Jacket
Close-up of a 5th \'ew York jacket. The jacket is edged in red tape which has also been used to form the distinctive trefoil designs culled torn beaux on each side of the chest. These tnmbeaux are a distinctive feature of Zouave dress. {Photo: Paul Smith, courtesy Tim Me work. Military Illustrated)
New York Zouave Regiments

Lieulendnt Thomas if . Curtwtright, who commanded Company C, 5th \ea> York, mas nicknamed 'The Fiend' because of the way he treated the men. One of his favourite ways of punishing misdemeanours was to hang offenders up by their thumbs. Wounded at Gaines' Mill, Cariwright suspected he had been shot by a vengeful 5th \ew Yorker and not the enemy, fXcw York Division of Military and Naval Affairs)

Lieulendnt Thomas if . Curtwtright, who commanded Company C, 5th \ea> York, mas nicknamed 'The Fiend' because of the way he treated the men. One of his favourite ways of punishing misdemeanours was to hang offenders up by their thumbs. Wounded at Gaines' Mill, Cariwright suspected he had been shot by a vengeful 5th \ew Yorker and not the enemy, fXcw York Division of Military and Naval Affairs)

exchange to raise a veteran regiment. Winslaw's mother, Katherine Fish Wins low, was a cousin of the New York politician Hamilton Fish, and his father, Gordon, had been regimental chaplain of the original 5th New York,

Recruiting for the new regiment went slowly. Winslow unsuccessfully petitioned the Secretary of War to transfer the 5th New Yorkers whose time had not expired and were serving with the 146th New York into his veterans, hut recruits from the original regiment and elsewhere did not come flooding in. A fanatical disciplinarian, Winslow had not been a popular officer, and matt} war-weary 5th New Yorkers were loath to serve under him again. As a whole, the North was becoming disillusioned with war, and in New York there were draft riots, which Winslow helped to suppress, swearing in 982 volunteers and 'borrowing' a battery of 12-pound howitzers to fight the mob.

Winslow offered bounties to attract recruits for the 5th Veterans, borrowing heavily to finance his dreams. 'My determination was fixed that the 5th Regiment should be preserved as the same organisation, cost what it would,' he wrote.

Eventually Winslow was able to put together a four-company battalion of 328 men, and for seven months his unit served in the defences ol Washington. He set about instilling an esprit de corps with a vengeance. The men were rigorously drilled, especially in bayonet exercises and skirmishing by bugle call. AH this, though, did not stop the 5th Veterans from enjoying the distractions of nearby Alexandria. Drunkenness became a problem in the battalion, and with typical zeal Winslow punished those who went astray by imprisoning them in Alexandria's old slave quarters. He ordered that Zouave inmates should be given three cold shower baths every 24 hours while they were incarcerated in the dungeon-like building.

In Mav ISM the 5th Veterans were ordered south to join the Army of the Potomac engaged in the costly assault against Richmond. Winslow immediately asked that his regiment be put under the command ol' Major General Gouverncui Kemble Warren, a former 5th New York commander and the man who had saved the Union army's left flank at Gettysburg the year before by rushing troops to Little Round Top. Winslow also asked that his regiment be immediately posted to the front. Both requests were granted.

The 5th Veterans were placed in Ayres1 1st Brigade, 1st Division, Warren's V Corps. They reached the command camped on the Pamunkev River after two days' hard march. The battalion was immediately bolstered up to 10 companies with men from the mustered out 14th Brooklyn

14th Brooklyn Flag

Captain Churchill Cambreleng who commanded Company II, 5th \/-))> 11irk, was commended for his gallantry during the Seven Days campaign in the I irginia Peninsula, hut had to resign when his health failed. In this photo he wears mi officer's version of the standard 5tli Xem York Zouave jacket, which has been decorated with gold braid and which Cambreleng wears over a buttoned and braided vest. (New ) ork Si ate Archives)

and 12th New York whose terms of service had not expired. Win slow was itching for action. When General Ay res suggested resting the regiment after their long march, Winslow would have none of it. 'We came here to Fight and riot to rest,' lie said, and ihc 5th Veterans were soon m the thick of the action at Bethesda Church,- clambering through thick undergrowth clearing away enemy skirmishers.

Mounted, Winslow was a tempting target for the Confederates, and a bullet tore through his left shoulder, shattering hone. Managing: to stay in the saddle, he was led to the rear as Ayres' brigade was flanked, falling back in disorder. The cost to the 5rh Veterans was dear: 67 men and five officers killed or wounded and 35 captured.

\\ inslow had his wound dressed, and although in great pain he refused to leave the field until ordered to the field hospital by General Warren. Evacuated to the Mansion House hospital in Alexandria, Winslow lingered for a few weeks and then died.

Win slow's death was all the more tragic because his lather, Gordon, drowned in a bizarre accident on the steamer Maty Ripley, while travelling with his wounded son to hospital. Leaving his son to rest, Gordon Winslow had gone out to get a pail of water for his horse, and slipped overboard at the mouth of the Potomac River. While Cleveland Winslow's death and his burial at Greenwood Cemetery in Brooklyn didn't generate the same hysteria as Ellsworth's demise, the gallant young officer was much lauded. The New York' Times said W inslow had been 'strikingly handsome and attractive, marked by every noble and true trait which makes the gentleman-soldier'.

'Always Ready' Elmer I Ellsworth had wanted Ins Fire Zouaves to be the first Zouave regiment mustered in for ¡lie war, but instead the honour went to the 9th New York Volunteer Infantry, Hawkins' Zouaves, who were mustered into Federal service on 2.1 April 1X61. The founder of 1 lawkins' Zouaves was Rush C. Hawkins, a military enthusiast and book collector whose collection of 15th-century books and manuscripts was said to be rivalled only by the British Museum.

Hawkins' Zouaves had their origins in a prewar military club formed in New York in i860. Sergeant Louis Benzpni, a regular soldier, was appointed as Hawkins' Zouaves' drill master, and the regiment had a hard core of men w ith military experience. Hawkins himself had served as a dragoon in the Mexican war, and Major Edgar Kimball had been breveted for gallantry in the Mexican conflict while serving with the 9th US Infantry.

The motto of Hawkins' Zouaves was Toujours Pre/ ('Always Ready'), and the regiment would newer be found lacking. They first saw combat in August 1861, at the capture of' Fort Hatteras and Fort Clark on the North Carolina Coast, and made a spirited bayonet charge during an attack on Roanoke Island in 1862. Then came the bloody conflict at Antictam: after wading through

Antietam Creek the 9 th mounted a steep ridge against ferocious resistance. 'The infantry tire was like hail around and among lis, producing the most dreadful carnage,' wrote Lieutenant Kimball, The Dili's advance cost them dearly, with 240 men falling out of a total of 373 in the eight-company-strong regiment.

Swedish-horn Private Charles Johnson, who wrote ii regimental history of the 9th New York, The Long Roll, was hit twice in the hips in the course of the battle. 'What a picture that was to paint on my memory, our boys thinned down to a company, still carrying their colours triumphantly,' he recalled, Johnson was still suffering pain from his wounds when he died in 1896 at the age of S3.

10th New York

The 10th New York, National Zouaves, was another Zouave regiment that had existed as a pre-war organisation in the city. It was formed after calls from the \en> York Herald in I860 for Northern patriots to band together against the threat of war, and mam members were active in the Masonic fraternity. Waters W. McChcsney, a former member of Ellsworth's United States Zouave Cadets, was appointed as drillmaster, and became i lie 1 Oth's colonel. The 1 Oth were mustered into service in late April 1861 for two years. For a time the unit was known as McChesney's Zoua\es, hut McChesney later resigned his position.

The regiment was renowned for the agility of ils men. Mam of ils members were small, but wiry. 'No estimate has been made ol the average age of the members of the tenth, but probably no regiment left New York State with a more boyish lot of soldiers,' wrote Charles VV. Cow tan in his book Services uf the 10th New Yuri' I olunteers (Nation®I Zouaves) in the war oj the rebellion, 'As a rule the\ were small in stature, \et lithe and active, and handled guns and knapsacks with an elastic vigour which often put to blush regiments of si\ footers.'

Serving in Virginia, the 10th was brigaded with the 5th New York in Sykes1 Division, Army of the Potomac. At Second Bull Run the regiment was positioned next to the 5th New York, and was also hit by the terrible attack from Longstreet's Corps.

The National Zouaves buffered 133 Casualties and their regimental colours were captured by the ISth Georgia. I.ike the 5th New York, the win Zouaves of the National Zouaves saw some ot the toughest fighting of the war.

New York Zouaves

Colonel Cleveland Ihnslow u'its the last eomtnander i>f the Sili \ew York, timl although comparatively soberly dressed here, he was renowned for his lane in extravagant uniforms, including a gaudily decorated /.ouave jacket. 'Altogether he was half Italian bandit and half English highwayman, a romantic looking fellow,' remembered 5th New V ork veteran Thomas Southwick. fVinslow created the 5th New ) <>rk Veteran J ulunteers, and was mortally n'ounded leading his men hi Bethesda Church in IHM. (Brian Pohauka)

Colonel Cleveland Ihnslow u'its the last eomtnander i>f the Sili \ew York, timl although comparatively soberly dressed here, he was renowned for his lane in extravagant uniforms, including a gaudily decorated /.ouave jacket. 'Altogether he was half Italian bandit and half English highwayman, a romantic looking fellow,' remembered 5th New V ork veteran Thomas Southwick. fVinslow created the 5th New ) <>rk Veteran J ulunteers, and was mortally n'ounded leading his men hi Bethesda Church in IHM. (Brian Pohauka)

The Fighting 69th

Formed in the !S5()s, the 69th Regiment New York State Militia was Irish-American to a man. Its colonel was Milhael Corcoran, the son of a British army officer who had grown tip in Ireland and served with the Irish Constabulary before emigrating to America. In 1860 Corcoran refused to parade the 69th in front of the Prince of Wales who was visiting New York, claiming the Prince was a symbol of British oppression. Corcoran risked a conn martial for his stand; bur with the outbreak of the Ci\il War in 1861, the action against him was dropped.

Irish nationalist Thomas Francis Meagher had been banished to Tasmania by the British government but he escaped to New York and became a US citizen, A lawyer and skilled orator, he campaigned widely for Irish independence. Like many Sons of Erin who had made America their new home, Meagher saw the coming civil war not only as a chance for thousands of Irishmen to prove themselves in their adopted country, but also as a valuable training ground for a much dreamed of showdown with Britain for the freedom of Ireland.

Not only was Meagher a patriot, lie was also a glory seeker. There was a \acancy for a new company to be added to the ranks of the Fighting 69th, as the Irishmen became known, and Meagher set about recruiting a company of Zouaves, who became Company k of the regiment. The company was known as the Irish Zouaves or Meagher's Zouaves, and swaggered a little more than their comrades who, for the most part, were attired in regulation Union dress.

At I 'irst Bull Run in 1861, where many of their compatriots in the Fire Zouaves were broken, Company k put up a much better fight, as the 69th faced stout resistance from Confederates who had captured Henry House Ilill. Facing heavy fire, the 69th screamed murderous Gaelic war cries as they plunged tip the slope; but each of their three courageous attacks was driven back, John keefe of Meagher's Zouaves was carrying tin 69th's distinctive green regimental colours in the fight, when a rebel tore them from his hands. Outraged, keefe snatched them back and shot the Confederate dead, keefe also managed to capture

5th New York Zouaves

thrum major John H. Naylor, of the 5th \ew York VeteraH Volunteers, in ISM. The -may turbans andfezzes were worn in the 5th \e:>> York Veteran \ olunteers was an exacting science, Colonel Win slow ordered that the men's hair should be kept short so that their fezzes would sit neatly on the buck of their heads and the turban should be worn 'canoe style' as shown here. The jackets of the 5th / dermis were o/ it lighter shiiile of blue than those of the •Oh! Fifth'. (Michael J. McAfee)

thrum major John H. Naylor, of the 5th \ew York VeteraH Volunteers, in ISM. The -may turbans andfezzes were worn in the 5th \e:>> York Veteran \ olunteers was an exacting science, Colonel Win slow ordered that the men's hair should be kept short so that their fezzes would sit neatly on the buck of their heads and the turban should be worn 'canoe style' as shown here. The jackets of the 5th / dermis were o/ it lighter shiiile of blue than those of the •Oh! Fifth'. (Michael J. McAfee)

a Confederate flag in the melee; some compensation for the 69th being ordered back from their attack on Henry House I 111!.

Fresh Confederate troops had arrived, outflanking the Union right. In the retreat from Henry [louse Ilill, Meagher was knocked head over heels and left unconscious on the field. 1 le

Forward, Volunteers!

TAKE THE BOUNTIES

WHILE THE OPPORTUNITY LASTS!

WHILE THE OPPORTUNITY LASTS!

Poster The Fighting 69th

CAPTAIN A. T. GROSER.

HEADQUARTERS.

CORNER BEDFORD AVE. AND CLYMER ST.

flAU* A WMMK rinnKMHlWl (H»«til m in rye-cat thing poster fur ¡he Second Battalion, Duryee /.mimes who mere designated the 165th Sew )ork and shipped out to Louisiana. The combination oj wearing Zonul e dress und the bounties paid to join the regiment meant the l6Sth didn't go short oj recruits. Lurid posters like this one were a popular method oj attracting recruits during the imeritan Civil liar. ('Michael Jf. McAfee)

was rescued by a trooper of the 2nd US Dragoons, who managed to haul the burly Irishman up across his saddle, Corcoran, the faith's commander, had nol fared well either: attempting to rally a last ditch defence against the advancing Confederates, Corcoran had formed the 69th into square. But panic was spreading throughout the entire Union army and in the shambles of the army's retreat Corcoran was captured.

Meagher, meanwhile, had recovered from being knocked out and fell in with a number of retreating Fire Zouaves, before he hitched a lilt on an artillery wagon. But Meagher's troubles weren't over. One of the wagon's horses was shot and the wagon tumbled into Cub Run, pitching Meagher into the water. Despite his mishaps, Meagher staggered back to Washington with the battle-weary 69th, who won much praise for the fight they put up at First Hull Run. Even the Southern press acclaimed them. l\o southerner but feels that the sixty ninth maintained the old reputation of Irish valor,' gushed the Memphis -irgw.

Corcoran spent 13 months in Southern prisons before being released in an exchange of officers around the middle of August 1862. Me then raised a new Irish unit, Corcoran's Legion, but Iresh

Corcoran Irish Zouaves

Private, 165th \'eu> ) ork, Second Battalion Duryee Zouaves, the 165th was a very effective outfit, and this man looks every inch a Zouave, jfust visible on tlic left edge of his jacket is the numeral 'J' and the company letter 7". lie's an exceptionally well turned tint individual. (Michael J. McAfee)

Private, 165th \'eu> ) ork, Second Battalion Duryee Zouaves, the 165th was a very effective outfit, and this man looks every inch a Zouave, jfust visible on tlic left edge of his jacket is the numeral 'J' and the company letter 7". lie's an exceptionally well turned tint individual. (Michael J. McAfee)

glories were to be short-lived lor the dashing Irishman; he was killed after falling from a high-spirited horse at Christmas 1863; he ma\ have been drunk at the time.

Using the 69th New York and recruiting other Irish-American regiments, Meagher went on to raise the Irish Brigade. Renowned for his love of battle, as well as drink, elaborate parties and horse racing, Meagher lived up to all the ideals of a true Zouave on and off the field. He saw his beloved brigade grow into one of the greatest legends of the Civ il War.

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