The Plates

Civil War Hospital Steward

Lieutenant Colonel Hiram Duryea was cheered by the 5tli Xew York Zouaves at Caines' Mill because of his coolness under Jire. He lived for a long time after the war, only to be murdered by his lunatic son, Chester, who shot him seven tunes at the family's Brooklyn home in ¡914 an inglorious end to the tough old warrior's career. (Xew York Division of Military and Suva I Affairs)

Lieutenant Colonel Hiram Duryea was cheered by the 5tli Xew York Zouaves at Caines' Mill because of his coolness under Jire. He lived for a long time after the war, only to be murdered by his lunatic son, Chester, who shot him seven tunes at the family's Brooklyn home in ¡914 an inglorious end to the tough old warrior's career. (Xew York Division of Military and Suva I Affairs)

Sadler, of the 5th New York, was born in England in 1840. He was wounded at Manassas, but survived, dying in Los Angeles in 1923.

During and after the Civil War, Zouaves were soldiers with attitude, who added broad brushstrokes of colour to the rich canvas of American military history.

American Zouaves may have been colourfully dressed, but for the most part their arms and equipment were standard regulation issue. With a few exceptions. Zouaves were armed with rifle-muskets and wore the same basic equipment as their comrades in 'ordinary' volunteer regiments.

A: Co lane I E Inter I'.. Ellsworth and his United States Zouave Cadets, 1800 Uniforms of American Zouaves varied, from almost exact copies of French Zouave dress to wide interpretations of the Zouave style. Even 'with his great interest in Zouaves, Ellsworth strangely did not choose to outfit his men in baggy pants and fezzes. Instead the United States Zouave Cadets wore uniforms that were colourful but which better resemble the Chasseurs of the French Army.

Being primarily a showcase unit, the Cadets had no fewer than four uniforms, which they frequently mixed and matched. Ellsworth (Al) is wearing his own version of the Cadets' Chasseur uniform, combining a double-breasted frock coat with red trousers. His red kepi trimmed with gold piping is typical of the fancy headgear sported by Zouave officers, but Ellsworth's kepi also has a regulation staff officer's hat badge with gold-embroidered oak leaves around a US logo embroidered in gold.

The Cadet (A2) standing by his illustrious leader is also bedecked in the formal-looking Chasseur uniform, a combination of the Cadets' dark blue frock coat and the trousers worn by A3.

His kepi is also the same style as that worn by A3, and the castle motif on A2's collar is a regulation engineer's collar insignia. It seems Ellsworth had his Cadets wear them on their Chasseur dress, either because he simply liked the design or because he planned to have an engineer company within the ranks of his Cadets, whose duties would include setting up tents. The castle-insignia, which does not show up well in photographs, has been interpreted by some historians as a letter 'H1 worn bv the Zouave Cadets because

Old Newsreels Civil War

I informed 5th \ew i ink veterans in the early I'Mills. Many American Civil liar veterans' associations were active well into the Jlltli century, am! some old newsreels show /ouaves on parade, the 'last man' of the 5th Xew York' was British-horn Private W illiam II. McGufJage, who passed away in Chicago, Illinois, on 12 .Way 1940, aged 99. His war had long been over, but another one had just begun. (Brian Pohanka)

they were originally Company II of the 60th Regiment Illinois State Militia. Hut sketches Ellsworth made before the war clearly show that the collar insignia is a castle.

Figure A3 wears the 'Zouave dress' of the regiment, worn when the Cadets gave their snappy drill displays. The jacket is of a Zouave cut, and though baggy, the red trousers are Chasseur pattern; not baggy enough to satisfy Zouave purists.

figures \2 and \3 carry militia knapsacks strapped to their backs. Made out of wood or pasteboard covered in black leather, these knapsacks are typical pre-war and early war issue. The stiff construction didn't provide any 'give', and they could be uncomfortable to wear. Figures \2 and \3 are armed with 1855 pattern rifle muskets with bayonets fixed for full effect. Another version of the Zouave Cadets' uniform featured the full dress fiock coat, blue-grey trousers and white cross belts.

II: Privates, I lilt Xew York- Volunteer Infantry, 1st Fire Zouaves, 186J

These two toughs from the Fire Zouaves who

I informed 5th \ew i ink veterans in the early I'Mills. Many American Civil liar veterans' associations were active well into the Jlltli century, am! some old newsreels show /ouaves on parade, the 'last man' of the 5th Xew York' was British-horn Private W illiam II. McGufJage, who passed away in Chicago, Illinois, on 12 .Way 1940, aged 99. His war had long been over, but another one had just begun. (Brian Pohanka)

'invaded' Washington in the early summer of 1X61 wear the regiment's first uniform. Funds to clothe the 11th New York had been raised by public subscription, and the uniforms were partly based on designs Ellsworth had made before the war. Again, they 're of a Chasseur, rather than a true Zouave style.

The light grey jackets faced darkish blue with red edgings and the light grey trousers of coarse jean cloth material were very stylish; the uniform of Francis E. Brownell, the Eire Zouave who shot Ellsworth's killer down, can be seen at the Manassas battlefield visitor centre.

Figure Hi's forage cap bears the brass numerals 'IZ' standing for 1st Zouaves, and above is the numeral 'A' denoting his company. On his jacket, which has 10 brass ball buttons down the front, like all his comrades in the Eire Zouaves, he has proudly pinned an I860 pattern fireman's badge. 1 lis fire-fighting heritage is also reflected in the distinctive red fireman's shirt which can be seen underneath his jacket and in his belt, where the white letters spell out TRI.MII.R', the name of his fire engine company back in Xcvv York.

Figure HI carries a model 1855 rille musket fitted with a sabre bayonet which he carries in his belt. Companies A and k of the Zouaves were issued with 1855 rifle muskets before the regiment left New York, while the rest of the Zouaves received various Sharps rifles. Dissatisfied with these rifles, considering them unsuitable for Zouaves, many members of the 11th New York refused to use them and received Springfield muskets as replacements.

Figure 152 relaxes nearby and, tossing his forage cap aside, reveals his shaved head. Before leaving New York for Washington, each Fire Zouave had a radical haircut; some went even further by having patriotic motifs, like Figure Ii2's American eagle, carved into the stubble. This style may have been influenced by the French Zouaves, who were renowned for shaving their heads.

The firemen's badges illustrated on this plate-are ty pical of those worn by engine companies, hose companies and hook and ladder companies of the New York Fire Department just before the war and displayed proudly by the men of the 11th New York.

C: 11 ih New York Volunteer Infantry, lsi Fire Zouaves (second uniform), 1 86I This Fire Zouaves officer (CI) and two privates (C2 and C3) are pictured in the debacle of First Bull Run, where many men of the 11th New-York, and indeed the rest of the Union army, broke and ran. These three men are made of sterner stuff, though, as they turn to face Jeb Stuart's cavalry.

The company officer (CI), who grimly holds the fire Zouaves' colours, wears a single-breasted frock coat adorned with a row of seven New York buttons and gold braid loops on the cuff slashes. Shoulder straps are dark blue edged red. Some officers wore enlisted men's trousers in action, but Figure CI wears full dress grey trousers with gold stripes edged in red. Me has a model 1851 sword.

The grey uniform first issued to the Fire Zouaves (sec Plate 15) was of poor quality and quickly wore out. New uniforms were provided by the government, but to the llth's disgust these were not of a Zouave pattern and the men refused to wear them. The government hastily issued red fezzes with blue tassels and a consignment of blue sashes was also delivered. Figures C2 and C3 wear these items and the dark blue trousers, which the Zouaves decided to keep from the first issue of replacement uniforms. C2 also wears a distinctive fireman's shirt.

A dark blue Zouave jacket was also issued, but details of this are unclear, and it seems it wasn't widely worn at Bull Run, where most Zouaves (like C2 and C3) fought in their shirt sleeves. C2 has retained the tan gaiters of the Fire Zouaves' first uniform and tucked his trousers into them, while C3 has dispensed with the gaiters and tucked his trousers into his socks. Both are armed with model 1855 muskets.

The magnificent colours carried by the officer were presented to the Fire Zouaves by the New York Fire Department. Measuring 68 by 54 inches, the colours were made out from white silk, with the details, including items of firemen's equipment, painted on. The staff has a metal halberd at the top which looks like a fireman's axe.

Saved from capture at Bull Run, the colours were placed in the collection of the New York State Division of Military and Naval Affairs after the war, but around I960 they went missing. As this book was being written, the long-lost I lth New York colours, some of the most colourful carried in the Civil War, were found rolled up in a cardboard box. As this book went to press, the colours hadn't been unrolled because the silk could be very fragile, and their future had yet to be decided.

1): Tiger Rifles, Company If, 1st Special Battalion Louisiana Infantry, liull Run, IH(>I Taking part in the action against Burnside's Rhode Island Brigade at Bull Run, these three Zouaves epitomise the fearsome reputation of the Tiger Rilles, who were probably the only company in the 1st Special Battalion dressed as

Zouaves. Figure 1)1 is a Tiger corporal who wears the unit's blue Zouave jacket decorated by tombcaux in red tape. It has been claimed that the Tiger Rillcs were issued both blue and brown jackets, but in fact blue was the only issue. Some jackets quickly weathered and faded to a brown colour because of the poor quality of the dye.

Figures 1)2 and 1)3 have discarded their jackets, and many Tigers, like the trio depicted here, wore red shirts, possibly inspired by several Tigers (including their commander, Roberdeau Wheat) who had served with Garibaldi's famed 'Red Shirts' before the Civil War. The blue striped trousers are the most distinctive part of the Tiger Rifles' uniform, and it is said they were made out of hard-wearing bed ticking.

Figure 1)1 and one of the Tiger Rifles privates (1)2) have tucked their trousers into gaiters, while the other private (1)3) has tucked his trousers into distinctive striped socks that wouldn't look out of place on a modern day basketball player.

One contemporary account says that the red fez/es with blue tassels worn by the Tiger Rifles resembled skull caps, and some devil may care Tigers, like 1)3, adopted the habit of wearing straw hats, sometimes with a patriotic motto on the headband. The Tigers were armed with 1X41 pattern Mississippi rifle muskets, a very distinctive looking weapon. Iktt 1)2 has dropped his musket, preferring to go at the Yankees with just his Howie knife. 'I bis rugged veteran with the eye-patch has a Colt revolver tucked underneath his waist-belt.

1:1: Private, Charleston Zouave Cadets, 1861 The Charleston Zouave Cadets were a company of 'Southern Zoos-Zoos' who became a part of the First Regiment of Rifles South Carolina 1st Regiment of Rifles. These smart young volunteers from some of the best families in Charleston were inspired by the ideals Ellsworth had drummed into the United States Zouave Cadets. If they were seen even entering a bar, they were thrown out of the company, but the compensation for staving sober was this smart grey uniform trimmed in red and cut in a Chasseur style. Note the kepi with a small crown. Some Cadets favoured wearing a small brass palmetto tree insignia on their kepis. The Cadet is armed with an 1X41 pattern Mississippi rifle musket.

E2: Private, Albany Zouave Cadets, 1801 The smart Albany Zouave Cadets also heavily imitated the United States Zouave Cadets, and they later became Company A, 10th Regiment, New York State Militia. I lis kepi carries the brass numerals WZC and note how the figure's trousers are baggy at the top and taper downwards. His black leather waist-belt carries the ever popular 'SNY' belt buckle which Confederates are alleged to have claimed stood for 'Snottv Nosed Yank' and not 'State of New York'.

E3: Corporal, Salem Zouaves, 1861 Arthur F. Deveraux was a former business partner of Elmer E. Ellsworth, and when the former was elected captain of the Salem Eight Infantry, in 1861, the unit was quickly transformed into the Salem Zouaves. The smart new Zouave uniforms, with trousers, vests and jackets made out of navy-blue woollen twill fabric, were delivered in June 1X61. Interesting features of this uniform include the collar trimmed in red leather and the unusual-looking gaiters which have lace-up outer seams secured by a white porcelain button. Figure E3's kepi bears the initials 'SZ', but some Zouaves still carried the old Salem Eight Infantry initials, 'SET, on their headwear.

i'l: Private, Irish Zouaves, Company A, 69th New York State Militia, 1861 'The only distinctively Irish feature of Meagher's famed Zouave company was their green sashes. Their jackets were standard Zouave style with red tombcaux. It was thought that Company k wort-green vests underneath their jackets, but as illustrated on Figure Fl, they were blue with red trim like the jackets. Caps and trousers were of the same style as those worn by the rest of the 69th New York.

The rest of Figure Fl's uniform is standard and this Zouave fights barefoot, a Gaelic habit which some members of the 69th indulged in at First Hull Run.

Against the heat he's covered his forage cap with a white cloth havelock. Originated by British general Sir 1 Icnry I lavelock and worn by British soldiers in the Indian Mutiny, havelocks were popular with troops in the early stages of the Ci\il War. Figure Fl's is a part of a consignment sent by patriotic New York ladies.

Company k were reported to have been armed with pattern 1816 muskets rifled and converted to the Maynard primer system. Figure Fl, though, has chosen to arm himself with an 1842 pattern smoothbore musket, the main arm of the 69th.

I'2: Corporal, 9lh New York■ Volunteer Infantry, Hawkins' Zouaves, I862

1 law kins' Zouaves never wore baggy red trousers, but a matching uniform of blue trousers and jacket. These trousers were always of a narrower cut than the truly voluminous Zouave style, and when the regiment was formed the men wore straight trousers and jackets without tombcaux. By 1862, though, the United States Quartermaster Department was issuing Hawkins' Zouaves uniforms like the one worn by Figure F2. His jacket is trimmed w ith red tape and a narrow strip of red cord at the edge. This uniform became standard issue for other regiments, including the 164th New York. Surplus 9th New York uniforms were also worn by some post-war Militia units.

I'3: Sergeant, 10th New York Volunteer Infantry, Xational Zouaves, 1862 From 1861 to 1862, the National Zouaves were issued with no fewer than three different uniforms. The first, made out of dark blue flannel, quickly wore out and the second, though in heavier material and featuring a brown jacket, fared little better. The distinctive third uniform, shown here, was a great improvement. Note the unusual red and gold down the trousers and the regimental cap plate attached to the front of his turban. Some National Zouaves sported these plates on their turbans, a feature unique to the 10th New York.

CI: Private, Silt New York• Volunteer Infantry, Dttryee's Zouaves, ISC>2

Of all Civil War Zouave regiments, Duryee's Zouaves were one of the most authentically dressed. When foreign war observer General Prim of the Spanish Army inspected the 5th New York, he said they looked exactly like the 2nd Regiment of French Zouaves. G1 wears his dark blue jacket over a distinctive shirt vest a strip of red tape running down the middle. His baggy trousers are cut in the full Zouave style, based on the baggy trousers known as serouels worn by native North Africans. In their most basic form, serouels were simply two large pieces of cloth joined together, with openings for the legs. His trousers arc tucked into jambiercs, gaiters laced up with leather thongs and worn over white gaiters. 1 lis waist sash has been wrapped in such a way that the inverted 'V's at the end of the sash hangs down over his left leg.

Wrapping their sashes this way was a 5th New York speciality. His fez is trimmed with a thin strip of yellow tape on the bottom also a feature on many fczzes worn by other Civil War Zouave regiments.

C2 & C3: Sergeant John II. Herri an Z5 Sergeant Andrew H. Allison, 5th New York, Gaines' Mill, 1862

Maddened by the death of his brother, killed earlier at Gaines' Mill, Sergeant Berrian (G2) has snatched up the 5th New York's regimental colours and marched 50 paces in front of the 5th's line to defy the enemy. Inspired by this action, national colour bearer Sergeant Andrew B. Allison (G3) has come up to stand by his side.

Union regiments carried both regimental and national colours, and the 5th New York's regimental colour carries the coat of arms of New York with the regimental inscription '5th N.Y.S.V.' in gold on a red scroll. The 5th New York NCOs wore Zouave uniforms with distinctive gold trimming. Figures G2 and G3 have gold sergeant's stripes on a red background. They have gold chevrons on their cuffs and their tombcaux are also edged in gold.

Ill: Officer, I lilt Indiana Volunteer Infantry, Wallace's Zouaves, 1861

The more sober nature of western Zouave regiments is depicted in this grey uniform, based on an original illustration of Colonel Lew Wallace. 'There was nothing of the Algerian colours in the uniform, our outfit was of the tamest grey,' wrote Wallace about the first clothes of his regiment. But with his flowing havelock, Zouave jacket and white trousers tucked into black boots, Wallace still manages to look pretty spectacular.

112: Private, 11th Indiana Volunteer Infantry, Wallace's Zouaves, 1863

Strangely, the first grey uniform of Wallace's Zouaves is better known than the second uniform Figure 112 is outfitted in, which the regiment wore for a longer time. The later uniform was adopted around December 1861, and the men served in it for the rest of the war. They wore their original red forage caps until they were replaced with blue ones, and the very dark blue Zouave jackets featured distinctive 'drooping flower' tombeaux on the chest, variations of which are common in the uniforms of several western Zouave regiments. Trousers were standard army issue blue kerseys, often worn tucked into tan coloured gaiters.

113: Private, 7(>th Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry, Keystone Zouaves, 1863 The 76th Pennsylvania and the Collis' Zouaves were the only Pennsy lvania Zouave regiments who wore close approximations of Zouave dress. The light blue trousers and dark blue jackets made the 76th's uniform particularly attractive. It was furnished by the Schuykill arsenal in Pennsylvania. An unusual feature of the jacket is the false sky blue vest front stitched into it.

I: Pennsylvania Zouaves, 1863 This plate is an informal grouping of two of Pennsy lvania's other Zouave regiments. Figures 11 and 12 are a private and vivandiere from the 72nd Pennsylvania Baxter's Fire Zouaves, while Figure 13 is a sergeant from the 23rd Pennsylvania, Birney's Zouaves.

Baxter's Zouaves wore dark blue jackets trimmed with red over elaborately trimmed shirts or vests. Figure 11 wears a sky blue vest under his jacket which is ornamented with brass ball buttons. Baxter's Zouaves wore either the regulation forage caps or McClellan Chasseur sty le kepis. Their trousers were light blue and had smart red stripes running down the side seams.

The vivandiere sports a jaunty blue 'liberty cap' styled on woollen caps worn by patriots in the American Revolution. She wears a Zouave jacket and a skirt slipped over a pair of regulation infantryman's sky blue trousers. 'The vivandiere's jacket displays a green hospital steward's chevron, but in case of trouble she also carries a small sword and pistol at her belt. Moving on to the sergeant, the elaborate tombeaux at the bottom of Figure I.Vs jacket was a distinctive feature of Birney 's Zouaves, as was the delicate piping on the cuffs. 'The sergeant has a sash around his waist as a mark of rank.

'/; Officers and Private, 165th New York, 2nd Battalion Duryee Zouaves, 1864 'The extravagant privately purchased uniforms worn bv Figures J1 and J2 make standard Zouave uniforms look positively tame. The illustration of Figure J1 is based on the jacket worn by Felix Agnus, second commander of the 165th \cw York. This spectacular uniform was tailored by Brooks Brothers in New York, who imprinted their label on the trouser buttons. 'The jacket is positively laden with red tape and gilt trim, with sleeves slashed to the elbow and secured by 10 brass buttons.

The kepi, with a scarlet top and black band, has a gilt-embroidered posthorn on the front enclosing a silver 'Z\ 'The rust red trousers are heavily pleated at the top and have gilt decorations around the pocket. 'The trousers are worn over a pair of gaiters, a habit popular with Zouave officers.

Figure |2 wears a more subtle uniform, but for all that it's still spectacular. Note that the top of Figure J2's kepi is higher than Figure Jl's, and the visor displays a gilt chin-strap. The jacket again features elaborate red and gilt trim, and of special interest is the elaborate detail around the shoulders. Figure J2's white vest has brass buttons set off with a bow tie, and bis trousers are also worn over white gaiters.

Figure J3 is on guard duty. 165th New York Zouaves were only allowed to wear turbans on guard or at the special request of officers. 'They were also expected to keep their equipment scrupulously clean, and could he lined 25 cents lor not having shiny brasswork. llis shirt vest, with a single button at the neck, bears the brass initials 'I)' and 'Z' of his beloved regiment.

Kl: Private, 4-tlli New York, Ellsworth's Avengers, 1864

The uniform of the famed Avengers was certainly heavily influenced by those worn by the Albany Zouave Cadets (see Plate E). The 44th was a distinctive-looking regiment: note the red shirt with its light blue trim. He has been fortunate in retaining the full Zouave uniform including the dark blue Chasseur pattern trousers with red stripes; some Avengers had to wear the regulation New York fatigue uniform also issued to them because hard campaigning meant their Zouave uniforms wore out. Photos taken in Alexandria, Virginia, in 1864 show some Avengers wearing their Zouave jackets with regulation light blue trousers. No Zouave ever gave up his uniform easily.

K2: Private, 140th Xew York Volunteer Infantry, 1864

This proud private, a veteran of the fight at Saunders Field, chooses to wear his fez with the bottom trimmed in yellow tape turned up. The 140th were one of the Union regiments 'transformed' into Zouaves late in the war, and wore their uniforms with pride until the end. 'The cloth is by far better material than any clothes issued before,' wrote one private. 'It is of good quality the color dark blue trimmed with red.' Another private said he thought the uniform was 'the easiest and most comfortable dress worn'.

K3: Sergeant, 146tli A'em York Volunteer Infantry, Garrard's Tigers, 1864 The new uniforms received by the men of the 146th New York were the style worn by the Tirailleurs Algeriens, or Turcos, of the French army native colonial troops who fought with the same tenacity as Zouaves. The light blue uniform trimmed in yellow shown here is very similar to a classic Zouave uniform, but the trousers lack quite the same bagginess. Colonel kenner Garrard of the 146th was ordered to Washington to oversee the production of the uniforms and the men were extremely happy with them. The regimental historian wrote that the 10-foot long waist sash provided the men with 'great comfort and warmth'.

I.I: Private, 114th Pennsylvania, Col I is' Zouaves, IS64

The 114th Pennsylvania were a particularly fine looking outfit, and as Meade's Headquarters Guard at the end of the war they were also one of the most photographed Zouave regiments. This Zouave is dressed in classic 114th style, llis jacket is trimmed with red worsted lace tombeaux, daintier than the red tape used by other Zouave uniforms. Also note the delicate red cord trefoils above the blue cuffs. Until original 114th uniforms were unearthed, the colour of the cuffs couldn't be verified, because the light blue registered white in period photographs.

Collis' Zouaves' trousers were of a narrower Chasseur pattern than traditional Zouave trousers, colourfully ornamented with yellow designs around the pockets.

L2: I ivandiere, 114th Pennsylvania, Collis' Zouaves, IS64

This figure is based on the dress of French Mary, the Civil War's most famous \ivandiere. She wears a standard 114th Pennsylvania jacket and a civilian hat decorated with feathers. Her skirt is worn over 114th red Chasseur trousers, and she carries the classic trademark of vivandieres, a small barrel used to dispense nips of liquor to tired soldiers. On her belt she carries a bolstered pistol, but whether French Mary ever had to use hers is not known.

L3: Private, 155th Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry, 1864

Part of the 155th's uniforms were manufactured and imported from Trance, but they weren't originally intended to be Zouave uniforms. The American government had imported 10,000 French Chasseur á Pied uniforms, but the jackets were found to be too small for brawny Americans. Some of the larger-sized Chasseur trousers were suitable for a Zouave regiment, though, and they went to the 155th Pennsylvania. Completing the outfit, the capes supplied with the Chasseurs a Pied uniforms were converted into Zouave jackets for the 155th Pennsylvania. Bright yellow tombeaux were added to these jackets, and false vest fronts were stitched in. The result was an unusually attractive uniform, popular with the men. 'The exchange to the Zouave uniform from the plain blue infantry uniform was enjoyed immensely,' wrote the regimental historian. Figure L3 wears a blanket roll over his shoulder, a method popular with Civil War soldiers for carrying their blankets, with personal effects rolled up inside.

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  • tesmi kidane
    How to make a zouave uniform?
    8 years ago
  • esmeralda banks
    Did the 10th new york zouaves have a vivandiere?
    8 years ago
  • kerstin kluge
    Did duryees zouaves carry 1842 springfields?
    8 years ago
  • stefan
    What was the 165th ny armed with?
    8 years ago
  • nieve
    Did pa fire zouaves havea insignea on their caps?
    7 years ago
  • John
    What was a sash made of for the zouaves 1863?
    6 years ago
  • lassi
    When did the chicago zouaves stop wearing the zouave uniform?
    6 years ago

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